ANTONIO F. DA SILVA
1 G. D. P. H., Donec formetur Christus in vobis, Meditazioni del Primo Maestro, Pia Società San Paolo, Alba-Roma, 1932. - In many publications of the first years of foundation, the initials G. D. P. H. (which means: Gloria Deo, Pax Hominibus) was used to take the place of the author's name. See frontispiece (DFst 3) reproduced on page 175 of this edition.
2 G. ALBERIONE, Donec formetur Christus in vobis, Critical edition by A. Damino, Edizioni Paoline, 1985.
3 It seems suitable that we introduce the usage of using DFcr to refer to this edition. We shall present a concordance table among the numbers of pages of DFcr, of DFms and of DFst at pages 281-284 of the current edition.
4 Quotations of passages of this Introduction shall have the abbreviation of “DFin” followed by the respective marginal number.
5 G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario, 1913-1925 1942-1946, pagine scelte, Edizioni Centro di Spiritualità Paolina, Roma, 1996, 19 November 1917, p. 92.
6 Ibid., 3 January 1919, p. 249.
7 Two versions of this document are extant: the manuscript text (= ADms) and the typewritten one (= ADds). The 1985 edition, by E. Pasotti and L. Giovannini attempts at a synthesis of the two versions. The 1998 edition by A. Colacrai and E. Sgarbossa, starts from the typewritten version.
8 We preferred to quote directly from the UCBS, although many passages are found in La primavera paolina (= PP), edited by Rosario F. Esposito, Roma, 1983. The texts quoted in this Introduction shall be found in PP through a related analytical index (pp. 1257ff) and in the Index of names (pp. 1279ff).
9 The printed Donec formetur (1932) is quoted with the abbreviation of DFst followed by the number of page. Cf. DFin 5.
10 Cf. G. BARBERO, Il sacerdote Giacomo Alberione, un uomo - un'idea, Vita e opere del Fondatore della Famiglia Paolina (1884-1971), Edizioni dell'Archivio Storico Generale della Famiglia Paolina, Roma 1991, pp. 73ff.
11 Regarding this period, Sr. Mercedes Mastrostefano, fsp, affirms: “The three prominent persons of Cherasco were Prof. Giovanni Ferrua, the musician, father of Fr. Ernesto Ferrua who was Alberione's companion in the seminary; Prof. Bartolomeo Rinaldi, poet and mathematician; Prof. Giovan Battista Adriani, historian. All these three persons taught at the high school and were friends of Fr. Montersino, parish priest of San Martino. During the year that Alberione went to high school, only a year as he later entered the Seminary of Bra, he no longer had the possibility of having meals as he had during the elementary grades so Fr. Montersino invited him for lunch at his convent. With the parish priest, there was the vice parish priest, Fr. Giuseppe Colombara, his aunt Angela and his niece Vittoria. Fr. Montersino most often, almost every day, invited those prominent persons to take coffee in the convent. Alberione narrated: 'I have never forgotten those persons who impressed on me the love for books. Their conversation fascinated me: music, literature, history, philosophy... I believe that I learned from them the value and the joy of books and of reading.' Thus did Bonfante [later the directress of teaching in Cherasco] told me and wrote. She added that little Alberione was very happy although he was quite intimidated.”
12 F. TORBIDONI, Un ritratto grafologico del giovane Giacomo Alberione come risulta dai manoscritti (1900-1907), in AA.VV., Conoscere Don Alberione (1884-1907), Strumenti per una biografia, Edizioni del Centro di Spiritualità Paolina, Roma, 1994, p. 315.
13 Fr. Alberione's affirmations find confirmation in the recent approaches on his youthful writings: “In Transactional Analysis, it is affirmed that at the start of life (existential script) a person establishes his life plan that could be defined only by a single word; hence he does it still at the start of his adult life, for every important change in it he redefines the plan by altering or confirming it, or, still confirming it in part (existential rough draft). The existential script of Giacomo is definable with a DOPO (AFTER) (true happiness and love comes only after death, now, for the little life that is left me I shall be strong and gentle and good in order to be great). Also at the end of adolescence, the script choice can be summarized in an “After”, which, however, projects as reward a hard and long work...” (M. T. ROMANINI, Lettura ermeneutica analitico-transazionale degli scritti giovanili di Don Alberione, in AA.VV., Conoscere Don Alberione (1884-1907), Strumenti per una biografia, a publication by the Centro di Spiritualità Paolina, Rome, 1994, p. 246). Also based on a comparative study of his handwriting, it shows that the young Alberione “must have minced his sentiments and his vocation; he must have gone deeply into the consequences and implications of the choices made and those to be made” (F. TORBIDONI, Un ritratto grafologico..., op. cit., p. 315).
14 Cf. R. F. ESPOSITO, L'enciclica “Tametsi Futura” e la notte eucaristica del secolo, Società San Paolo, Casa Generalizia, Roma 2000, pp. 320.
15 Cf. R. BALLERINI, Il cattolicismo cadente il secolo XIX, in La Civiltà Cattolica, series XVII, vol. V, quad. 1166, 21 January 1899, pp. 170-175.
16 Cf. G. BARBERO, Il sacerdote Giacomo Alberione..., op. cit., pp. 114ff.
17 Cf. Manoscritti di Don Alberione, Quaderno 36, edited by Centro di Spiritualità Paolina, 1993. Useful aids for knowing this Quaderno: Guido GANDOLFO, Per un primo approccio alla lingua di Alberione nei manoscritti, in AA.VV., Conoscere Don Alberione (1884-1907), Strumenti per una biografia, Edizioni Centro Spiritualità Paolina, Roma, 1994, pp. 145ff; Angelo COLACRAI, “Dio” e “Storia”. Un profilo dello studente Alberione (1901-1907), in Ibid., pp. 165ff.
18 G. ALBERIONE, “Sono creato per amare Dio” (I was created in order to love God), edited by G. Barbero, Edizioni Paoline, 1980.
19 G. ALBERIONE, Taccuini (Notebooks), no. 2.
20 Cf. G. BARBERO, Introduzione, in G. ALBERIONE, Mazzo di fiori a Maria Santissima, Edizioni Archivio Storico Generale Famiglia Paolina, no. 4, Roma, 1981. In Mazzo di fiori a Maria Santissima, the young Alberione limited himself to copying “the book of Contessa Rosa di San Marco; he thought of drawing out of it the outline, the thought and also the verbal expression, although he allowed himself the liberty of abbreviating, modifying as how his intimate feelings made him” (Ibid., p. 5). “The choice may have been determined precisely by the title of the book, Un Mazzo di fiori, that brought to mind the Madonna dei Fiori di Bra (Cuneo), a most venerated sanctuary of the same name... His mother brought Giacomino, still a child, before the altar of the Madonna dei Fiori, and she consecrated him to her many times” (Ibid., p. 6).
21 G. ALBERIONE, La B. Vergine delle Grazie in Cherasco (La Madonnina). Memorie - Ossequi, Alba, Tip. Albese di N. Durando, 1912, 136 pp., 8 ill., 15.5 cm.
22 Cf. Lavori vari, no. 4. Unpublished notebook, restored and kept at the Centro di Spiritualità Paolina.
23 In 1933, Fr. Alberione proposes a list of saints to imitate during formation: “Let us look up on Priest Saints: 1. St. Gregory the Great - Pastoral. 2. St. Bernard - . 3. St. Francis of Sales - Ascetics. 4. St. Alphonsus de' Lig. - Morals. 5. St. Bonaventure - Mysticism. 6. St. Thomas Aq. - Philosophy. 7. St. Augustine - Theology” (LV01, p. 163).
24 The pontificate of Pius X and his program outlined in the encyclical E Supremi Apostolatus had an important influence on the priestly formation of the young Alberione: “Nonetheless, inasmuch as it pleased the divine will to raise Our lowliness to such sublimity of power, We take courage in Him who comforts Us; and setting Ourselves to work, supported by the power of God, We proclaim not having, in our Supreme Pontificate, no other program if not precisely this: 'to sum up all things in Christ' (Eph 1:10) in such a manner that 'Christ is all and in all' (Col 3:11). [...]
“God's interests shall be Ours; for these We are resolute to expend all Our energies and life itself. Because of this, if anyone asks of Us a rallying word, that may be an expression of our Will, We shall always give this and none other: “Restore all things in Christ.” [...]
“Nonetheless, Venerable Brethren, this pleading of men on the majesty and kingdom of God, no matter how We work on it, shall never be obtained if not through Jesus Christ. 'For no one,' so the Apostle tells us, 'can lay a foundation other than the one that is there, namely, Jesus Christ' (1Cor 3:11). It is Christ alone, 'whom the Father has consecrated and sent into the world' (Jn 10:36), refulgence of his glory, the very imprint of his being (Heb 1:3), true God and true man; without whom no one can truly know God, as it befits our salvation, so that 'no one knows the Father except the Son and anyone to whom the Son wishes to reveal Him' (Mt 11:27). From this follows that to restore all things in Christ and lead men back to subjection to God is one and the same purpose. Hereby We are urged to turn Our concerns to lead mankind under Christ's rule; only through this would We have led it also to God.
“It is your task, Venerable Brethren, to support Our efforts through holiness, through knowledge, through your experience, and above all through your zeal for divine glory; do not have any other goal but that Christ be formed in each one.
“What means or task should be used to achieve such a great purpose, it seems superfluous for Us to point out; they are obvious by themselves. Your primary concern should be to form Christ in those who, by duty or vocation, are destined to form him in others. We refer to priests, O Venerable Brethren. This being so, inasmuch as it has been conferred to priests that they should know, amidst the people with whom they live, that they have that same mission that Paul attested to have received through these tender words, 'My children, for whom I am again in labor until Christ be formed in You!' (Gal 2:20). 'For me life is Christ' (Phil 1:21). Because of this, although the exhortation to aim at the perfect man, by the measure of Christ's full maturation to the extent of the full stature of Christ (Eph 4:13) is addressed to all, nonetheless, it is addressed to those who exercise the priestly ministry; as they are therefore called other Christ, not only through the communication of power, but above all through the imitation of the deeds through which they must bear in themselves the same image of Christ. [...]
“Inasmuch as it is not true that progress in the sciences extinguishes faith, but rather ignorance, thus it happens where ignorance dominates, there unbelief does greater damage. And this is the reason why Christ commanded the apostles, 'Go therefore, and make disciples of all nations' (Mt 28:19).
“However, in order that from this apostolate and zeal for teaching, the hoped for fruit be had and in all Christ is formed, let everyone bear in mind, O Venerable Brethren, that nothing is more effective than charity. This is so because the Lord is not found in commotion (1Kgs 19:11). In vain can one hope to attract souls to God with a bitter zeal: so that instead of harshly confronting errors, and bitterly repress vices; often this does more harm than good. The Apostle indeed exhorted Timothy: 'convince, reprimand, encourage' but he also added 'through all patience' (2Tm 4:2). Surely, Jesus left us with such examples: 'Come to me,' so we find him to have said-'all you who labor and are burdened, and I will give you rest' (Mt 11:28)” (cf. La Civiltà Cattolica, series XVIII, vol. XII, quad. 1280, 7 October 1903, pp. 129-149). (Translation ours).
25 Letter dated 16 April 1906. Cf. G. BARBERO, Il sacerdote Giacomo Alberione..., op. cit., pp. 135-136.
26 G. ALBERIONE, Istruzione I, in Ut perfectus sit homo Dei, Mese di Esercizi Spirituali, aprile 1960, Vol. IV, Quarta Settimana, E. P., Ostia (Roma), 1962, p. 7. Cf. Ibid., in the single volume: G. ALBERIONE, Ut perfectus sit homo Dei, Month of Spiritual Exercises, April 1960, St Pauls, 1998.
27 It is significant that in the sermon held the day of his first Mass (30 June 1907) in the parish church of San Martino in Cherasco, the young priest wanted to quote Jesus' invitation “Venite ad me omnes” something that deeply struck him on the night of the century's passage: “Spiritual graces - Jesus cured so many sick persons, consoled so many afflicted ones, enlightened so many persons in doubt, strengthened many who were weak. Widows, orphans, the poor, the old folks, the young, the rich and the poor: he has graces for everyone because he is infinite in power and in mercy: listen to his words: Venite ad me omnes qui onerati et laborati estis et ego reficiam vos: come to me all of you who are burdened either by sins or by defects, or by the loss of loved ones, or by material calamities: come all of you: I will refresh and console you” (Q007).
28 Cf. G. ALBERIONE, Appunti di Teologia Pastorale (Pratica del Ministero Sacerdotale per il giovane Clero), Cav. Pietro Marietti Editore, Torino, 1915
29 Cf. G. BARBERO, Il sacerdote Giacomo Alberione..., op. cit., p. 154.
30 Cf. A. DAMINO, Quaderni autografi di Don Alberione (anteriori al 1914), in Conoscere Don Alberione nostro Primo Maestro, Informazioni dell'Archivio Storico Generale della Famiglia Paolina, n. 3 - novembre 1981, pp. 9-18. These three notebooks are classified as Lavori vari: 1) Outlines of meditations (Notes), 1912-1954 (LV01), 187 p.; 2) Outlines and indices of meditations, 1908-1912 (LV02); 3) Outlines for spiritual exercises, 1909 [?]-1913 (LV03).
31 Fr. Alberione had made a Quaderno di Indice (Index Notebook) of his sermons, which, in turn, are contained in about ten manuscript Notebooks.
32 In the Quaderni, Fr. Alberione used to add notes, after the meditation text, like this that is found after the second meditation on “I believe”: “Place - the whole seminary. Date - 29 October 1911. Weather - Beautiful. Preparation - Scarce. Duration - 30 min. Delivery - Poor. Effect - Satisfactory” (G. Alberione, Quaderno 50, p. 23). In Appunti di Teologia Pastorale, Fr. Alberione writes: “Taking notes of these things, the preacher shall have a norm to follow inasmuch as he is bound to repeat that sermon: he shall remedy the defects committed and shall keep what was good” (op. cit., p. 258).
33 For example: “Spiritual Exercises to the Ven. Clerics - October 1991 - Preacher - Fr. Giusta S. J. - quite impractical in application. Generally not liked - Scarce fruits - did not let people reflect seriously. Did not enter the true spirit of the Spiritual Exercises” (LV03, p 30); “Spiritual Exercises to the Ven. Clerics. June 1912 - preachers: Fr. Latini and Fr. Mario (Missionaries). Very practical in application - very much liked - Abundant fruits, inasmuch as it made people reflect much” (Ibid., p. 30); “Spiritual Exercises to the Clerics - October 1913. Preacher: Fr. Cerutti: practical and intimate” (Ibid., p. 25b).
34 Cf. IRENEE HAUSHERR, Direction spirituelle chez les spirituels orientaux, in AA.VV., Direction spirituelle, in Dictionnaire de spiritualité, fasc. XX-XXI, 1956, col. 1015.
35 “On Meditation - 27 October 1908.
a) for not leaving stagnant God's grace (faith - hope - charity)
b) for not leaving stagnant natural gifts (reason - will - heart)
c) for taking away bad sayings (Synchronize a clock)
d) for doing good to others”
36 “Ways of doing it:
st do not want to judge the book or the preacher
nd speak up as well if there shall be useful things for meditation
rd we shall make great exercises - via purgativa (way of purification) - hate sin - via illuminativa (way of illumination), virtues of J. [Jesus] C. [Christ] - via unitiva (way of union), the rewards” (LV02, p. 1). Points “a” and “b” of the same outline on the Need for meditation correspond respectively to “1
st ”, “2
nd ” of the Manner of doing it; and points “c” and “d” correspond to “3
rd ”. These seven points are broadly developed in DFst.
37 At the end of LV03 Fr. Alberione composes an index of 56 topics for meditation and discernment inspired after the “Spirit of St. Franc. of Sales.”
38 P. CHAIGNON, Il prete santificato dalla pratica dell'orazione ossia Corso di meditazioni pei sacerdoti, voll. I-III, Venice, 1907
39 F. G. FABER, Progressi dell'anima nella vita spirituale, Cav. Pietro Marietti, Torino, 1872.
40 For example, “Inst. X To Imitate J. C.” (pp. 31a-31b) has as subtitle “Sancti estote, estote perfecti: but with J. C.'s sanctity” and ends thus: “...copy him, taking each morning some example of J. C., meditating on it and seeking during the day to translate it in us as a painter does when recopying a great model. Donec formetur Christus in vobis, exemplum dedi vobis... Vita Christi manifestetur in corporibus vestris (S. Paul)”. - DFst 44ff.
41 It is possible that this course may have lasted more than three days as the notes, that are interrupted at page 17b with Instruction III, seems to be taken up on page 27 with Instruction VII. The theme, in fact, is interrelated. For example, the theme of mercy announced at the second point of the Introduction is taken up only in Meditation VII, on God's Goodness (p. 27). Fr. Alberione made in this house also the exercises of July 1909 and 1910. Cf. G. BARBERO, Il sacerdote Giacomo Alberione..., op. cit., no. 14, p. 175. By itself, Meditation VIII could be connected to the “Spiritual Exercises to Priests 1912 - Alba Seminary”. In any case, though, this outline of meditation seems prior to 1913.
42 This Meditation contains themes taken up also in DF: “Nosce te ipsum = and made better by: noverim me, noverim te (cf. DFst 17). ...From where do we come?... [...] Who are we?... [...] For what are we? In order to save others and with them, ourselves”.
43 “J. C is:
Way = inasmuch as through his humanity we go to the divinity -
(by Him we were redeemed - humanity makes us know the attributes of the divinity [)]
- we must have as well devotion to his humanity.
Truth = inasmuch as he communicated it to us.
Life = He who lives like Him can say: vivo ego jam non ego - vivit autem in me Christus.”
44 In order to understand Donec Formetur it seems important to cite here the start of the first meditation of Quaderno 53, held on 31 March 1912, on the Holy Spirit as the Author of the Bible: “'I believe in the Holy Sprit.' The Bible. 1. The H. Spirit is he who in baptism gives us the virtue of faith, of hope, of charity: from Him come the gifts of wisdom and intelligence, of counsel and of fortitude, of knowledge, of piety, of fear. From him the eight evangelical beatitudes proclaimed by the Lord in the sermon of the mount: from him the twelve so-called fruits of the Holy Spirit described by St. Paul: from him the inspirations, from him the entire sanctification of the soul, by him the Church is made infallible and indefectible. In order to speak to you less inconveniently of the Holy Spirit I ought then to explain to you all these things: but time does not allow it. I cannot, however, set aside to give instructions on one of the works of the Holy Spirit. - It is of extraordinary importance: it forms today the objective of the most profound and most varied studies: I am referring to the Bible. I would be quite fortunate and grateful to the Holy Spirit if I could induce you a bit to read it also when alone: my efforts to do this sermon would have been repaid. I say then: 1. Let there be the Bible, 2. Something of its beauty - 3. What duties we have towards it” (p. 3).
45 G. ALBERIONE, La donna associata allo zelo sacerdotale (Per il clero e per la donna), Alba, Scuola Tipografica “Piccolo Operaio”, 1915, pp. 342.
46 E. SWOBODA, La cura d'anime nelle grandi città, Studio di Teologia Pastorale, Italian version edited by B. Cattaneo on the second German edition, F. Pustet, Rome 1912, pp. 392.
47 C. KRIEG, Scienza Pastorale, Pastoral Theology in four books. Authorized version on the first German edition by Archpriest Antonio Boni.
48 As regards Krieg, Fr. Alberione here refers especially to C. KRIEG, Libro I. Cura d'anime speciale, Cav. Pietro Marietti Editore, Torino, 1913, pp. 652. Cf. A. F. DA SILVA, Cristo Via, Verità e Vita centro della vita, dell'opera e del pensiero di don G. Alberione, in AA.VV., L'eredità cristocentrica di don Alberione, Edizioni Paoline, Cinisello Balsamo (Milano), 1989, pp. 241ff.
49 C. KRIEG, Enciclopedia scientifica e metodologia de le scienze teologiche, (Scientific encyclopedia and methodology of the theological sciences), Libreria eccl. Editrice Cav. Ernesto Coletti, Roma, 1913, pp. 392.
50 “The innate desire of knowing has given origin to two forms of Encyclopedia: to the compilation of summaries materially arranged; and to the formal or scientific Encyclopedia, presented systematically. Each of the two forms has its long history, both have an adequately harmonic progress, both respond to psychological laws. Formal encyclopedias on that subject matter came about slowly due to the ever growing amount of scientific knowledge, that has led to a more exact arrangement and to the systematic organization of them. In a special manner, after the half of XVIII century, alongside the material “lexicons,” there appear a growing number of encyclopedias, works that only include all branches of sciences and arts, and where the tendency for clarification and synthesis became even more accentuated but where there is still an attempt to reproduce the mutual connection among sciences, with particular sciences, or the unified body of all human knowledge in a systematic synthesis” (Ibid., p. 10).
51 “During the classic age, however, the learned Greek, in order to be considered “learned,” had to have an encyclopedic culture or a specified conventional scholastic education. Whoever took the kuklos was considered enkuklios, “learned”, paideutós, but not a specialist, a scientist; who did not was akuklios or apoideutós [apaideutos?], that is, unlearned; he did not possess the paideia en kuklo. With kuklos meant in Greek so much the circle as the circular movement as well as the field of knowledge considering that knowledge arranged according to determined laws forms a circle, the middle of which is the fundamental idea. In contrast with paideia eleuthéra, there were, in a lower level, téknai (bánausoi), the purely mechanical arts that were not useful for the perfection of the free man as the Greeks thought it, and in a superior level there were the superior sciences. Only the first represented the learned for the Greeks and hence, the true man. Over and above, special culture was cultivated through philosophy” (Ibid., p. 13).
52 As guide, the encyclopedia “has two tasks: it must be introductory and directive... Each science, like theology or jurisprudence, forms a closed circle of knowledge, or of cognitions, with the fecund idea at the middle and the various parts or members, which, like branches, originate as if like rays from the fundamental idea (principium, arké), and go back to the center. The particular branches all together form the whole (totum); or the totality of a science, intimately bound by a single principle (or idea); they have in it the only center. Thus, for Theology, the idea of God and, for jurisprudence, the concept of law, constitutes the fundamental concept (fundamental or general idea). Now the encyclopedia has precisely to bring out clearly the fundamental idea of a science, and to indicate how from it the other parts originate, without however having to deal or perform these material parts” (Ibid., pp. 4-5). “The encyclopedia, however, also has a practical purpose because it aims at being a directive and guide as to how a specified science is studied... Thus another task falls on the encyclopedia, that of being a Methodology, or in order to indicate to the student the right path and the most conducive means for the purpose, how he ought to enter the spirit of a science, and if he assimilates its content. This is the practical side, or the teaching-introductory element of the encyclopedia. Thus, the encyclopedia does not only want and ought not to teach theoretically, but at the one time it must guide and practically train towards study, if not to a profession, to life. Making the nature of science and its connections with the branches known and showing us in this orientation how we have to assimilate the spiritual content of a science and translate it one day into concrete life, the encyclopedia becomes contents and methods oriented. As methodology, the encyclopedia must indicate how one has to prepare, regulate and pursue the study of the science, how the scholar may elevate, through researches, thoughts and original observations, and furthermore what qualities of heart and will he has to possess so that his study becomes fruitful” (Ibid., pp. 6-7).
53 “Moral theology must accomplish a threefold task whose composition requires a special treatment of the moral law. In conformity with it, three methods related to the conception and exposition of Moral theology have also been historically developed: the speculative (scholastic), the mystical and the practical-casuistic. These three directions in the treatment of morals correspond to the three paths that were opened to us in order to achieve the goal of acting morally. The law of the N. T. makes eternal life depend first on the knowledge of truth (conoscenza della verità) (Jn 17:3) [one, probably by mistake, reads “conseguenza” della verità], then follows the fulfillment of the precepts (Mt 19:17) and finally comes union with Christ (Jn 6:57). According to how it is directed by one or the other, the exposition of moral theology assumes a different character. Scientific treatment therefore must tend to unite the three ways without exclusively professing one or the other method, because they in fact converge among themselves, integrate each other and support one another. Precisely in the field of morals, there ought to be a wise and discrete timing of the aforementioned methods of research and of exposition; every unilateral treatment leads to a certain deviation because, in the speculative method, life and practice are not adequately considered, and in the casuistic method, the fundamental laws of morality easily disappear and are weakened and forgotten” (C. KRIEG, Enciclopedia scientifica e metodologia de le scienze teologiche, Libreria eccl. Editrice Cav. Ernesto Coletti, Roma, 1913, pp. 310-311).
54 “The mystical method considers the principles and the precepts of moral life under the aspect of their supreme purpose, or under the aspect of the union of the soul with God, through an impulsive or higher knowledge and intimate love of God (unio mistica). Taken from this point of view, moral doctrine is shown as the doctrine of virtue, and, practically seen as ascetics, or as the science of the means for achieving virtues, or of those moral exercises, through which the intimate life of grace is received, promoted and brought to fulfillment and to perfection. Here Moral Theology presents principally a virtuous Christian life in its perfection, and the fulfillment of all moral precepts as the means for achieving it. This treatment above all underlines the means proper to the promotion of interior life of the soul, or man's life hidden in God (Col 3:3: Mortui enim estis et vita vestra est abscondita cum Christo in Deo). It gives us principally the guide for achieving the three stages of Christian perfection: on the way of purification (purification with works of penance), on the way of illumination (superior spiritual-moral knowledge) on the way of union (degree of man's union with God through contemplation and similar means)” (C. KRIEG, Enciclopedia scientifica..., op. cit., p. 311).
55 “Christ's pastoral office and its division.
1. Pastoral theology is the science of the redemptive work of Christ or, according to the metaphorical denomination § 109, that is to be explained, of the pastoral functions of Christ that the Church accomplishes through its parts. Those manifestations of the Church's life comprise the object of Pastoral. The Lord had to accomplish a great life work (opus Dei, Jn 4:37; 17:4)-this was his “mission,” that is, the work of Redemption (sotería), to which belongs a complex of roles that can be divided into three groups: they are the so called duties (officia, munera) of Christ, that together comprise the opus or officium. The Lord presents himself to the world in threefold qualities: he calls alétheia, zoé and odós (Jn 14:6). The apostolic writings call him logos, arkieréus, leitourgós and arkegós, and arkipoimén (1Pt 5:4), a word that embraces all his attributes. In order to save humanity, the Savior (sotér ) [The Greek contemporary theologians divide it thus: 1) kerux kai Didáskalos; 2) arkieréus; 3) basiléus] ought:
a) to reveal the eternal truth, with which men could reacquire the possession of the pure knowledge of God. Above all, Christ unveiled the supernatural revelation of God to humanity, in its supreme and absolute form. Through it reason was freed from the bonds of error;
b) to expiate the sin of humanity and pay with the malediction (Eph 2:14) the punishment, that due to sin weighed on it, in order to reconcile it with God and place it in a new vital relationship with him, (the principal thought that dominates the splendid letter to the Ephesians). This took place due to the corresponding satisfaction by Christ;
c) to bring to humanity a new law of life, in order to educate and raise weak will.
With this threefold redemption function, the Lord came to meet a threefold spiritual need that he himself affirms by calling himself Way, Truth and Life. Hence, with the threefold office we come to indicate the organic complex of those actions that, in the mind of God, the Man-God had to accomplish, and which the Church pursues until now through its servants. These are object of Pastoral” (Ibid., pp. 326-327).
56 In order to understand the mental horizon and the preoccupation of Fr. Alberione as regards to what awaited him, it seems useful to analyze the following outlines for meditation:
“The Edict of Constantine -
st The whole world celebrates. It should be celebrating even much more.
nd The pagan world - worshipped false gods.
It was immoral.
It was persecuting the Christians - persecutions. - Prohibition to preachConstantine's work - Apparition of the cross.
Edict - The Cross - Temples - The right to inherit
Processions - freedom of speech - Freed slaves
Prohibited immorality - Woman - Emperor - Liberty - equality - fraternity
Reflections - Thank - Power of J. C.
Take courage - Do not believe it is all over - martyrs -
Work - Become good in order to become holy ministers, to let known and loved J. C.
rd May the freedom to be obtained through prayer, with sacrifice, with work come out in heaven” (LV01, p. 21).
57 Since the graphic arrangement of the 29 lines of the handwritten outline isn't possible, here the text is presented in a more fluid manner with the parenthesis of line 19, rather difficult to interpret, removed (“Era Italiano!! ?”):
“Constantine Jubilee - modern Persecutions -
st The Constantine feasts are intended for thanksgiving - and also so that the modern times may learn. Persecutions have changed - Tortures have changed: but the substance remains the same - instead malice has become refined -
nd Persecutions -:
Governments against catechism in schools - crucifix - religious marriage - Popes - bishops -
The press with calumnies - with falsification of dogmas - that they ignore - that they discredit the clergy - by publishing obscenity...
Freemasonry = against the Church - Socialism - that takes advantage of elections - through false entertainments, with discourses, seeking to win over also women -
In England - 32 profess. - and better -
In the United States - 2,500 learned converts, converted each year
In China - the way is open for Christianity
In Japan - Catholic university -
In Germany - Catholics have doubled, having their own center -
In France - happy awakening in schools and universities - Lourdes -
In Austria - Eucharistic Congress
In Italy - to Leo XIII -
a) Everyone's zeal - also of the woman at home - to defend religion... religion is yours: just as health is yours, not the doctor's; yours is life, your bag
b) Popular union -
c) Catechism in the school - Popular vote, France - (praise) send to catechism.
d) Against bad press - against fashion - (People - press- clergy)... And newspaper of priests!
Objection: Priests say it... Hence should we do what is against - they also say do not kill - or kill one's self -
rd Time for half solutions is over -”.
58 We find in the Notes of Cleric Giaccardo (often he used to sign Giaccardi) summaries of the sermons along this theme. Cf. Ch. GIACCARDI GIUSEPPE, Sunti di prediche, panegirici, istruzioni, meditazioni, no. 19, summary CLXVIII and CLXX.
59 The meeting of the 11-year-old Giaccardo with Fr. Alberione and the former's vocation itinerary until ordination is related, although the names are not expressedly mentioned, in Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VII, no. 5, 15 May 1924, pp. 3-4. - As a cleric, Giaccardo summarizes his itinerary: “1. I go to the seminary; some liking for the “Gazzetta”, also for other things. I want to do good at home through good books, that, either due to laziness or human respect or prudence, they mostly block. 2. Last thing during high school and senior high school: desire to work in Catholic Action, of becoming free soon to work in the press and in the C. A. Then to become vice or Parish priest, but to work in this field. Truly, the area of a single Parish does not quite satisfy me... I feel the press is more of my area. Special love for the Church, the Pope; living faith in the true triumph of the Church. In Theol. the work of the press seems more important to me: then I am convinced of the necessity of the apostolate, then I feel it, then I am convinced and the more I feel it to be my apostolate. A very strong inclination. I do not know what could fill it. Salesian, Jesuit or Missionary. 3. Relationship with the Teologo. He tells me about Priests of the Press, and I do not understand God's will. He founds the printing press and immediately I have this intuition as to where he wants to go, and he does not talk to me about it. A desire to see him, straight. Let me not will it. He considers me as member = I do not want. He speaks about the need of such priests, = Obstacle. He speaks directly about me, I put up problems and I take time for his school. Meanwhile I feel I am a member there. I get convinced and I feel most inclined that it is my area. Days of conviction, of persuasion; of strong inclination, for the press, and the Congregation, for the Teologo, for his feelings, because he does not talk to me = what he feels now. 4. To convince myself of the need of the Apostolate and of the Congregation! My area. Excitement. Motives = Excitement. Time? Pride and Mission?” (G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., op. cit., pp. 278-279). As regards his first year in Senior High School, Giaccardo writes in a summary the sermon made by Fr. Alberione: “I. Modern society is so down. 1
st The socialists have in their hands workers and farmers, through their own Chamber of labor, and they infuse in them hatred towards God, the church, the priest, and they are de-Christianizing them. 2
nd Not even noble, cultured, landed class is with us, they are given only to luxury, pleasures, pastimes. We are agni inter lupos (sheep among wolves). II. Nonetheless it is our task to reform society, and we shall reform it: 1
st through intellectual means: by spreading and supporting the press; a) intellectually: sending short and fresh and important articles b) morally: a) praising our publications; b) informing the editorial when something is unpleasant; g) congratulating it, when something is liked; c) financial support...” (G. GIACCARDO, Libretto per i Santi Spirituali Esercizi, June 1913, XIX, unpublished).
60 A. PAVISSICH, La stampa grande potenza, in La Civiltà Cattolica, year 64, vol. 1, quad. 1502, 18 January 1913, pp. 129-140; Ibid., year 64, vol. 1, quad. 1504, 15 February 1913, pp. 398-408.
61 “Meanwhile, the work of social restoration is not simply a work of destruction of what is evil, but is as well the building of what is good, that is, substituting the evil press with the good press. Against the destructive energies of imperious capitalism, in the field of the press, the healthy and vigorous energies of a regenerating culture, drawn from the pure wellsprings of Christian civilization, are a force. This is so since Christian principles, on which contemporary society has had its origins and its development, with all the advantages that are therein, can stop and demean the damages of the modern apostasy that is threatening its very foundations” (A. PAVISSICH, La stampa grande potenza, op. cit., pp. 407-408).
62 G. BORGNA, Il Re dei tempi, Mano alla Stampa, Premiata Scuola Tipografica Michelerio, Asti 1914, pp. 114.
63 “Fifty years ago, one could ask: Who reads? Now one should say: Who does not read? Reading is a need of our times, our society would not know how to live without reading. Today everyone wants to know about what is going on in the world. Each one wakes up in the morning, impatiently waiting for the newspaper, eager to know about the new politics, the surprises of the stock exchange, the goings on in business, the gallant adventures, the strange things that happen under the moonlight from one continent to another, from one sea to the other” (Ibid., p. 28).
64 “The longing for novelty is what keeps fashion up and it is what feeds journalism, too. The bringer of novelties is precisely the newspaper that grows old in a day. Its coverage has no limits: it speaks of everything; it takes over the religious and political movement, refers and discusses matters regarding education, commerce, events; speaks of the theater, of accidents and crimes, of domestic and agrarian economy, of gymnastics... in short, it revolves around everything that embraces nature, culture, the world” (Ibid., p. 29).
65 “Whoever is not informed about this modern invention and which shapes entertainment every day? Who has not seen the chaos of scenes that in few hours, few minutes pass through the screen? The newspaper is something like it since in it we see, we observe in detail, uninterrupted, the convulsive agitation of the universe, of the heavens and of the earth, of the sea and of the elements, of nations and of humanity” (Ibid., p. 30).
66 “[The newspaper] goes up buildings and goes down to the hovels, enters in shops and in neighborhoods, passes through academies, rests on the table of the learned, runs in public ministries, enters the schools, circulates through the streets and the squares, takes the railroads, branches through the streets of nations, lords it over all parts of the social body, imposes itself on the intelligence and shapes public opinion” (Ibid., p. 31).
67 This chapter is entirely published, without any reference to its source, in the bulletin Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year II (1919), no. 7, p. 7: “ 'O press, so Krueger writes, you are the orator, the great preacher of our times. The words that you pronounce with so much passion echo in a few hours over the entire country. You preach in taverns and coffeehouses, in buses, in trains and in the privacy of homes and strongly in all the squares. Where a number of people meet, you are in their midst and you preach. But your word is not lost like in the pulpit as soon as it is spoken. What is not impressed on the memory of the desirous reader, remains impressed on paper, and, and to him who casts his glance on it, it preaches assiduously. Thus you shout day by day, without ceasing and without rest.' The press, for the great multitudes of peoples, is the universal supplier of spiritual elements: it is the only daily bread of numberless souls; its judgments form the 'Creed' of millions.”
68 “When the newspaper appears, millions of hands grasp it, millions of faces devour it, and imperceptibly it takes over their intelligence and their hearts. It sows ideas, makes them fertile, and obtains from them fruits of works according to its will” (Ibid., p. 31).
69 “In our times when many would like to see the word king erased, one is forced to bear the dominion of a new and untamable power: that of the press. It is the king of the times, because it exercises its magical and mysterious power on all men, with no class or condition excepted. The world does not go on its own; the newspaper takes it by the nose.
“It is the king of the times because it speaks of everything that takes place in time and in space.
“It is the king of the times because it makes its command, its laws heard every day, every hour and at the same time in ten, a hundred, a thousand places, everywhere.
“It is the king of the times because it takes in its hands the present, the past and the future.
“Finally, it is the king of the times because its power grows without limits with the passing of years, with progress in education and of civilization.
“The Hebrew-Mason Cremieux therefore was right when, in 1842, he shouted at the Masonic lodges of Paris, 'Brothers, consider gold as nothing: the press is everything. Buy the press and you shall be lords of public opinion, that is, lords of the whole nation.' Thus it happened: and Freemasonry became in reality the master of France and of many other nations.
“Let us understand it too: the press is everything: without it nothing shall be done; it is the king of the times” (Ibid., pp. 40-41).
70 “It is a much more formidable plague than war. It is a more formidable plague than hunger. What is then this ever formidable plague? It is the bad press” (Ibid., p. 45).
71 The author quotes the words of Luigi Windhorst at the Catholic Congress of Frieburg: “Help the good press!... here is great apostolate, the modern apostolate, the modern and worthy apostolate, if the Supreme Authority considers it suitable, let it be established as a precept of the Church” (Ibid., p. 78).
72 “It is charity, charity par excellence. The Divine Master tells us so: 'not every charitable deed is made of bread'... Blessed are they who understand that the most cruel of all hungers is the 'hunger for truth' according to the expression of Msgr. Delamaire. Clearing the minds from error through newspaper, we cooperate to the triumph of truth and social redemption. Woe to us if, instead of spending our money to found and support good newspapers, we spend it in worthless things or even in good works of which we could not make an entirely good use. Let it be known well and not be forgotten: The most important work, more necessary for the modern times, is the press: to help and support it is the most fruitful act of charity” (Ibid., p. 83).
73 “The following expression of Msgr. Ketteler, Archbishop of Munchen, has rang throughout the world: 'If St. Paul returned to the world, he would be a journalist.' And I firmly believe it” (Ibid., p. 97). The whole chapter, without any reference to source, is published in Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year II, no. 5, May 1919, pp. 5-6: “St. Paul back to life. The following expression of Msgr. Ketteler, Archbishop of Munchen, has rang throughout the world: 'If St. Paul returned to the world, he would be a journalist', and I firmly believe it.
“Truly, what did St. Paul do? He sowed the word of God everywhere. For such purpose, he chose the places and the most reputable teaching chairs in order that he could be heard by the greatest number of people. He looked for it and asked for it in the synagogues, he sought it in the Areopagos of Athens, at the court of Agrippa, at the Theater of the great Diana of Ephesus, at the prisons of Rome.
“Let us suppose that one day they told St. Paul: Paul, there is a teaching place where you can be heard not only by a small synagogue but by the entire population, rather, by the whole world: from Syria, from Palestine, from the whole of Asia, from Egypt, from Greece and from Italy. More; from up this teaching place you could proclaim Christ, preach the Cross, raise the people to justice and truth.
“I am sure that St. Paul would have immediately asked: 'Where is this teaching place? I want to be in it.' And if it were pointed out to him, he would have gone up there in a wink of an eye and stayed there for the rest of his life, just like the stylites on their columns.
“This teaching place did not exist during St. Paul's time, but it now exists: it is the good newspaper. This is humanity's pulpit: the 'perpetual mission' as Leo XIII used to call it.”
74 The author publishes a page containing ten “I wish” or wishes regarding the press apostolate. Let us quote the first: “I wish, these are the desires of a worthy Catholic, I wish as so many of my friends want, as so many fervent souls of brave Christians and most zealous Catholics wanted and want, they who with their examples make me fervent for the propagation of the good press, I wish as how one French newspaper - that in the same guise in times past soup was being served to the poor from convent doors, that today at the doors of the Church the Catholic newspaper were distributed” (Ibid., pp. 106-107).
75 G. F. RE, Lettera ufficiale alla S. C. dei Religiosi chiedendo il nulla osta per l'erezione della SSP in congregazione religiosa diocesana, 31/12/1921. Cf. G. ROCCA, La formazione della Pia Società San Paolo (1914-1927), Appunti e documenti per una storia, Roma 1982, pp. 562-563.
76 G. F. RE, Lettera ufficiale alla S. C. dei Religiosi..., of 31/12/1921, cf. Ibid., p. 563. The name “Scuola Tipografica Piccolo Operaio” (Small Worker's Printing School) was certainly chosen for reasons of convenience, while waiting for the suitable hour to express the real intention of the institute. In this regard, the testimony of Fr. Alberione on the fortieth year of foundation is interesting: “When the first boys were gathered, in 1914, in a small house and a minute printing press, something curious happened, as if an alarm: 'Work and bread are taken away from the printers.' Appeals to the Authority were made. The Church authorities replied, 'Respect the freedom of everyone.' The civil authority replied: 'it is stillborn... we shall watch over it, at the first unlawful move, it shall be closed.' So, it had to be born even smaller, and not let anyone hear even a sigh... So, everything was covered by the name 'Small worker's printing school.' It was a Christmas crib. We ought always to consider ourselves, only as small workers of God; just as it is in fact with respect to the whole world and the colossal means that make use of false teachers, enemies of Jesus Christ and of the Church” (G. Alberione, Nel quarantennio, Welcome address to the visitors of the Pauline exhibit, Alba [20.08.1954]). The FSP, in Fascicoli 1954, make known the date of this talk: “Printed in SP, July-August 1954, pp. 1-3; in RA [Regina Apostolorum], August 1954, pp. 1-3. It was reproduced in CISP, pp. 145-148; in CVV 212. The text is taken from RA, August 1954. A voice recording is extant. In various printed publications, the date is missing. The recording carries this date: Alba: 20.08.1954.”
77 We have the testimony of G. B. Bernocco: “The young priest gave me the best impression for his warm and concrete manners with which he exposed his program of action. From his looks and voice, the ardor of an industrious zeal, inspired by concreteness of intent for the realization of the Institute thought of at length, transpired” (cf. G. BARBERO, Il sacerdote Giacomo Alberione..., op. cit., pp. 229-230).
78 Cf. G. BARBERO, Il sacerdote Giacomo Alberione..., op. cit., p. 233.
79 Cf. Documento del giorno dell'Assunzione, 1916, in G. ROCCA, La formazione..., op. cit., pp. 551-552. What Cleric Giaccardo writes in his Diary on 19 October 1917 is very significant. For reason of space, we shall quote only a part: “Declarations of the Sig. Teologo to the students better able to understand him, so that they may decide with related knowledge for their future: 1
st Where we are going: The Casa shall be a Religious Institute with a first, a second and a third order, of which the first two shall profess the vows. The first order is for men and it is composed of students and workers. The students shall graduate in social sciences and some will stop here; others, who aspire for the priesthood, shall be ordained; priests graduates and simple graduates; their task is the directorship, editorial, writing in newspapers, conducting and holding conferences. The artisans, having become capable printers, shall have the direction of the printing press, the compilation and the technology of the newspapers. The first order for men is already started; there are already students with vows, bound to the Casa: students and artisans. The second order for women is already started; its task: to print, write, catechize, cooperate entirely with the Christian-social action. The third order, which is hoped to be canonically established soon, embraces the cooperators of either or both sexes; this, with material and moral assistance, with advice and diffusion, well informed by the spirit of the Casa. This third order exists already in reality.
“Setup: the Casa shall have a Director General who will give the directive norms, the points of struggle; to him everyone must obey. Every newspaper shall have its Director; alongside with the older ones, shall arise, too, a Novitiate of students. The Casa shall be spread in Italy, then in Europe and in the world.
“End: The good press: journalism; newspapers of all the world, ours; they shall help one another materially and morally with every means. Our struggle shall be for the triumph of the Church, of the Pope, of Christian civilization, against the powers of the devil and especially against Freemasonry” (cf. G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., op. cit., pp. 79-81).
80 G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., 8 December 1917, op. cit., pp. 105-106. In parallel, also the branch for women followed its own path of consecration through the private vows. Cf. C. A. MARTINI, Le Figlie di San Paolo, Note per una storia, 1915-1984, Roma, 1994, p. 96.
81 Alberione's words noted by Giaccardo. Cf. G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., 8 December 1917, op. cit., pp. 104-105.
82 Giaccardo, on 29 April 1918, reveals also the serious problem of hunger: “Rain goes on. It contributes to castigate us with hunger. War, hunger, pestilence are three sisters ever bound together. God now is set to punish us and beats us and he must go to the bottom of it; war also ends, but the scourges shall not end, till now the children of the people are the ones hit. He who has wanted the war has gone into hiding and eats white bread, but God is not going to let him off the hook easily” (G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., op. cit., p. 201).
83 We find an actual reference to these affirmations in the page of the Diario of Giaccardo, dated 29 November 1917: “At dinner this evening the Sig. Teologo told us that the times are most serious, so serious, that we do not understand it, that we will not be eating any more. He vehemently protests against the thoughtlessness of life in movies and in theaters. Most serious are the military situation, most serious is politics, most serious is the economy and social life, most serious is the religious situation. We are therefore at a stage that Italy has never gone through in a thousand years. This is also on the occasion that the Sub-prefect has censored the Gospel on the bulletins. The Functionaries see themselves in deep waters and they are keeping themselves up: more, they are the pressing weight of Freemasonry that wants the priests pay for it: the spirit against the Church is very strong. During St. Paul's time, people spoke and then they died: now no one can even speak because of censorship. There is God behind men and blinds them and lets them get to the bottom: and it is from all this that the Church shall have a very great victory but first there would be very painful days: the Roman question is Italy's thorn, but it is not only she who is a sinner: the whole of Europe. The Good Press is a mission of restoration and of strength” (G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., op. cit., p. 95).
84 On 19 March 1918, Giaccardo writes in his Diario: “The characteristic of our Father is not the extraordinary but the ordinary: He recommends to us prayer and faith and with it concern, diligence, work, speed, life, cheerfulness, and not poetry, but he educates us to reality by subjecting us to the serious states of individual, political, national states; he wants to give us the spirit, but he insists on humility, naturalness, on simplicity” (G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., op. cit., p. 194).
85 “Two things are my only irritations, our Venerable Father tells us during meditation: that I am not good enough and you are not saints enough. These two alone are my irritations, others I don't have, all the rest is nothing and it just comes. Should an earthquake level our house, this shall rise back and shall extend throughout the world in the principal countries and shall last for many centuries, it is absolutely necessary. The need is impelling and God wants to do this, but we are setting up pitfalls to Providence. Who knows how many more bulletins there were, how much has the cause of our newspapers gained if in us there were greater spirit, if we were more saintly” (G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., 15 February 1918, op. cit., p. 191).
86 In the Diario, Giaccardo notes down the short sermon Fr. Alberione had on 12 March 1918: “...Hence, we must have clear but very simple agreements with the Lord: Lord, I must know many things and I have little time for studies: I also have to typeset, to print, hence, I will typeset and print for as long as you want and what you will. Give me knowledge. Clear agreements and trust. The apostles were ignorant but after having received the Holy Spirit, they stupefied the world and confused the learned, and enlightened all men. The Holy Spirit shall not come down on us in the form of a ball of fire, but he shall come this way: he will make us learn faster what we read; store more of what we learned; and apply better our studies; in a way that what others learn for three hours and not easily remember or lived, we might learn it in one hour, remember it and use it. Let there be this faith and let it be real. The Father has had the experience regarding two young men who, with such faith, in a month did what they could in six. Let no one say, I haven't studied, I haven't learned. You have not studied, you have learned more, not grammar perhaps, but other things, and you shall see in thirty years if you are not as knowledgeable as others. This faith is essential in the spirit of the Casa, just as its spirit is new, in this manner, it possesses new means: one of the principal ones, an essential part of the spirit, is faith in learning without much study. He who does not have this faith is out of tune and makes others laugh at him. We have to keep it well in our heads: this faith is essential. St. Paul worked for God and was telling God that he had the right to earn his bread: qui altari deservit, de altare vivere debit. The same is for us; we must work for God and we need to learn many things. We work and the Lord shall think of giving us food, not only for the mouth but also for the mind and the heart. We must then not behave as others tell us so, but what the life of the Casa requires of us. To whomever that objects we study little, we answer: We are and God's grace: one part us, two parts God's grace” (G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., 13 March 1918, op. cit., pp. 195-196).
87 Fr. Alberione's words quoted by Giaccardo. Cf. G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., 8 December 1917, op. cit., pp. 103-104.
88 Referring to the day before, Giaccardo writes on 30 September 1918: “And the Sig. Teologo explained to us the three branches of the Casa; male, female, cooperators; and he continued, 'This last had greater difficulties of all; it is not that the first ones have already been established, but some more freedom could be enjoyed. Now also the last has begun; the union of Cooperators of the Good Press. During the Exercises, I have written down the rules and regulations, then we recommended them to God; now I have presented and subjected them to the Msgr. Bishop, who not only approved them fully, but has wanted to be the first to enroll. Let us then thank God that it has begun and so well at that.' He explained to us the contents of the Statute; those who could join are all those who are committed to perform for the good press either special prayers or offerings or to work, to write... 'To begin is not everything, later shall follow difficulties, disapprovals, impediments, discouragements and it shall be like pushing a ship across the woods. We need to pray then; and you pray and let us pray: St. Paul would have no problems. He shall take and make this new Union fruitful, you shall be zealous as you can in its behalf before everyone. In thirty years time, you shall understand the importance of what I have said this evening: in thirty years'.” (G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., 30 September 1918, op. cit., pp. 233-234).
89 It is interesting to note that already in January 1918, Giaccardo, under the title, “Conversion of St. Paul,” had outlined for himself a life program laid out in three points that are the same as those indicated by Fr. Alberione as the means of the Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa: prayer, offering, action (cf. G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., 1918, op. cit., pp. 124-125).
90 G. ROCCA, La formazione..., op. cit., pp. 551-552.
91 “25 October 1918. Yesterday the copies of the bulletin of the Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa were laid out before Jesus in the Blessed Sacrament. The Sig. Teologo blessed them with the Pyx and the Most Blessed Sacrament. We were all kneeling around. The dear Father first spoke to us: 'For the first time, the bulletin goes out. It has to support our good press. It is good that it goes with the Lord's blessing. We did everything possible to let it go out beautiful and proper, but if God does not give his blessing, our efforts are worth nothing: with God's blessing, instead, it shall penetrate and obtain fruits. It brings us the example of the Blessing of... the dying, the last words of Clelia. What price is it for God to raise the Cooperators of the Good Press? With a fiat, he raised the heavens, let the fish that swim in the water appear, the birds that plow the sky and has created man 'king of all creation.' We need to be deeply convinced that raising the work of the good press is a great miracle, and we are content that God shall do it. On our part, however, we need: 1) Quærite primum regnum Dei et iustitiam eius, the rest shall be the butcher's free piece. Seek holiness and God's glory only; 2) trust in God alone and not in our own energies. We tell God: let me do it. God withdraws and we rock our heads. God, who fears nothing, is afraid of our self love. God does all things well and always 'bene omnia fecit'. Hence, when we see things go bad, it is a sign that something of ourselves has set it and let us ask ourselves immediately: what have I done? On God's part, we need his grace that we obtain through prayer: humility therefore and prayer” (G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., 25 October 1918, op. cit., pp. 237-238).
92 “The conversion of St. Paul. On the 25
th of this month the Catholic world celebrates the feast of the conversion of St. Paul. It is a date to remember in the Church. Saul was the most terrible enemy of Christianity being born: angry, he moved towards the city of Damascus with his soldiers to bind as prisoners the Christians he would have found. But the grace of God hits him at the city gates and he is changed into a completely different man. I chose him so he may proclaim my name to the Hebrews, the gentiles, the princes, and kings, the Lord says. And Saul, changed to Paul, becomes the first among the apostles, he who gathered in the bosom of the Church most souls over the other apostles. For him the Church had a new life; instead of a persecutor. This is how therefore this great feast in the Christian world has been established. There are some parishes where it shall be solemnized with a 'day of the good press.' In others, a special ceremony for the conversion of sinners, especially of those who, like Saul, make use of their ingenuity, their culture, their social position to fight the Church, the Vicar of Christ, religion. All those enrolled at the 'Union of Cooperators of the good press' are warmly invited to receive communion that day for such purpose. Let us ask that we be converted from a lukewarm life to an ardent one: let us ask for the energy and the right spirit for Catholic writers; let us ask for the conversion of impious journalists. Let his novena also be celebrated, especially with the recitation of the prayer printed on the holy cards of St. Paul” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year II, no. 1, January 1919, p. 2).
93 “The Apostle Paul has traveled the world known at the time, proclaiming the good news and gathering under the banner of the cross an endless number of Christians. He is therefore a man of zeal: it is almost as if zeal were personified in St. Paul. From here followed naturally that the Apostle Paul should be chosen as protector of the Good Press. No means of diffusion today can be more universal and effective than the newspaper in particular and the press in general. Thus, the journalist enclosed in his editorial office extends his work and let it reach the ends of the earth. The statement of Ketteler is not without meaning or is proffered accidentally: 'If St. Paul were born now, he would become a journalist'.” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year II, no. 1, January 1919, p. 4).
94 “Proclaim the word” (2 Tm 4:2).
95 “Perform the work of an evangelist” (2 Tm 4:5).
96 “The spirit of Saint Paul is drawn from his life, his Letters and his apostolate” (ADds 94).
97 “The direction of scholarship, that was had before the war, brought by its nature the attention of the learned to the origins of the Church. The Church's ancient history was the preferred object of scholars of things Christian. Many aberrations came up in the modernistic and protestant side; but good fruits were not wanting, rather, they abounded. From among these good fruits, one of the better ones is the broader and more profound knowledge of the life, the works and the doctrines of the apostle Paul. Not only this; but also, and this is the natural consequence, the desire to make the devotion to this great preacher of the Gentiles more practical and as if popularized” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year II, no. 1, January 1919, p. 4). “Devotion to St. Paul. Msgr. Bonomelli well said that many of the most distinguished saints of the Church are those that are less remembered by the people. How many, in fact, pray to St. Peter, St. Paul, St. John Chrysostom, St. Ignatius Martyr, etc. If we only knew what St. Paul has done to the world, especially to us descendants of the gentiles! If only we read the life, the works, the epistles: how much more shall we pray to him, love him, imitate him. From him we shall learn two virtues that are the foundation of Christianity: love for Jesus and love that is shown in the zeal for one's neighbor. Let us celebrate devotedly the feast of St. Paul on June 30: it shall be a beautiful occasion for letting this great apostle known. Let us spread his image and let us pray to him as the protector of the Good press. It is as well most useful. Explain St. Paul's epistles at least once. This is already being done in some parishes where every 5, or 6 years, instead of the Gospel, the epistle of the Mass is explained to the people: and the epistle is almost always a passage from the letters of St. Paul” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year II, no. 6, June 1919, p. 2).
98 Every issue of the UCBS bulletin refers to the said importance of the press. Let us quote some: “The world is governed by public opinion and this, by journalism,” Pavissich (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year I, no. 2, 28 November 1918, p. 2). “Nowadays people do not form any other opinion and it regulates its life if not from the daily reading of newspapers” Leo XIII (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year II, [no. 2?, between Feb. and Apr.] 1919, p. 3). “Believe me, this need to consecrate our energies for the development of the press is a need of such an importance that I, bishop, would delay the building of a church in order to assist the foundation of a newspaper” Card. Mercier (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year II, [no. 2?, between Feb. and Apr.] 1919, p. 7).
99 “The new mission of woman. Women cannot stay out of the great apostolate of the press; on the other hand, in the press there are parts that are especially suited to women. This is a most lofty mission. Besides, among the Salesians we can see its confirmation. I just saw in three places the sisters in the printing press: they are working so well; there are many of them who write, not long time ago, the Cardinal exhorted that the sisters joined the staff of the publication of newspapers. 1. There are women, employed at the post, telegraph offices, shopkeepers, educated women who could attend to columns for women, letters, various articles. 2. Many women have time to promote and gather subscriptions to our newspapers, religious bulletins, to distribute them; to make libraries work. 3. Many women have the possibility of donating, instead of spending much in things less useful. 4. Daughters who would want to give themselves to the good press through a work that is much better than the sisters of Schools, Clinics, Hospitals, Missions: they, for many things, in the printing press, work better than men. 5. Besides, all women can pray, make communions, recite the rosary many times for the good press, subscribe and diffuse the Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year I, no. 2, 28 November 1918, p. 2).
100 “The fundamental idea. Is this: the good press is today a real apostolate, the first of apostolates, after that of prayer. However, in order that it be a true apostolate, we must consider it not as an industrial undertaking or as if a profession: but in view of forming souls, of minds, of hearts, of an apostle. Which means: that those who are dedicated to it are men of prayer, of sacrifice, of social virtues; that they be upright in character, learned persons, so that the enemies of the Church may be unmasked, the truths of religion be well presented, the morals and the dogmas are well defended. Needed too are workers-printers who do not give in to attractions of profit, subjecting themselves to the service of liberalism or the sects: workers who render their work with the spirit of faith as for a sacred apostolate: workers that are so capable that they do not fear competition from anyone. Let us therefore have printers and writers of virtue and knowledge. The ideal. The ideal would be to have: A family, union of souls and of hearts, consecrated to the very urgent work of the press. It shall be made up of printing workers, of writers; but persons who should bind themselves with a sacred and solemn promise that they will dedicate all their energies to the work of the press. With this the cooperators shall associate themselves within the limits of their possibilities, with prayer, offerings, work” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year II, [no. 2?, between Feb. and Apr.] 1919, pp. 2-3).
101 “The young students are divided into two sections: the simple artisan and the artisan students. The first learn the art of printing and they have their own time to study, to work, to do practices of piety. The second, less work and much study. For the simple artisans the complete course lasts for five years. At the end they receive a diploma of professional training and, if needed, a proper employment shall be sought for them. For the student artisans the course lasts for eight years and they can be graduated in social sciences (Pontifical faculty in Faenza). Should they not succeed in their studies, they would however have most certainly the most advantageous printers' profession” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year II, [no. 2?, between February and April] 1919, p. 2).
102 “Section for Women of the Printing School. It surely is not a novelty if women are engaged in work for the press; it is something that in our times one ought to take as a much greater development. Girls can work in typesetting, printing, binding, mailing and writing. Numerous jobs can be done better and more easily by them than by young males and men. Intending to succeed in this, the section for women has been opened in the printing school in Alba. It went through a long work of preparation: now, capable of working on its own, it has been transferred to Susa where the diocesan director has entrusted to them the newspaper and the printing press, and Msgr. Bishop has furnished their residence. It has the same purpose as that of the section for men, that is, to benefit the good press. Only that: while the young men are trained to graduate in social sciences, the daughters (who intend to study) are trained to have the license of elementary school teachers. Apply to T. Alberione in Alba: or to teacher Boffi Angelina in Susa. N.B. In Alba, the section for women of the Printing School had the bookstore at Via Accademia which, as a consequence, is currently closed. Those who still have bills to pay, contact the section for men at the Printing School, publisher of the Gazzetta d'Alba” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year II, no. 1, January 1919, p. 8).
103 “It would be a grave error. To confuse the Printing School with ordinary charitable or recovery institutes. The Printing School is an institute essentially dedicated to the apostolate of the Good Press and the young persons have to be good and must demonstrate genuine inclination to be welcomed. Being more or less rich, having great or discrete intelligence is not a problem. No one shall be excluded from it only because of poverty” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year II, [no. 2?, between Feb. and April] 1919, p. 5).
104 Fr. Giaccardo wrote on 26 December 1919: “A number of malicious individuals would like to damage the press. The Sig. Teologo sleeps there with two young men. Yesterday evening he was telling me: We shall take human measures and what prudence suggests, from the roof down. As for the rest, I am most serene; the Guardian Angel should do the guarding. What consoles me most is the thought that these things are not mine, but the Lord's; this way, I feel I am living up to the detachment of the heart; and should the case come that we leave them, I will not be afflicted; Providence shall see to it that they come, to take care of them, to make them grow. Oh, Providence! Only yesterday even I came to know that people fear for my life: it was decided upon to kill me during the election week; and yet we walked through the streets at all hours of the night; and God has protected us” (G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., 26 December 1919, op. cit., p. 287).
105 “7 January 1919. Yesterday evening the dear Father invited all of us to make a pact with the Lord. It is the pact he made with the Lord: to study for one and learn for four. This morning, at meditation, he repeated to us the importance, the bases, the conditions, the invitation. His word was burning and full of conviction and so persuasive... At Mass, for that matter, the Litany of the Blessed Virgin, the 'Veni Creator', 3 Pater Ave Gloria, one for each condition that must be placed. Before the 'Hail Mary' the dear Father recited the formula of the pact, those who wanted, repeated it in their hearts” (G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., 7 January 1919, op. cit., pp. 250-252).
106 “My Most Holy Forty-Eight Hour devotion went well. Under the influence of Jesus Eucharist these texts have produced in me an impression of the most healthy kind: Docentes eos servare omnia and... et ecce ego vobiscum sum; prædicate evangelium...; quærite primum regnum Dei et hæc omnia...; non vos... sed ego elegi vos ut eatis. And all these texts in relation with the good Press. A stronger spirit of prayer was reawakened in me, prayer of living faith and of trust in Jesus Eucharist, formator of the Clerics: a passion for humility, humiliation and for sacrifice. I long to live entirely the whole life of Jesus C. Priest. I have seen more clearly, he has more greatly impressed on me my mission for the Press Apostolate and I felt myself better burning for it. The Apostolate of Christian civilization, based on Jesus C. first missionary, who now sends us. I long to seal a life entirely for the love of God and souls, wholly for holiness, humility, entirely for zeal, branded with zeal and the doctrine of God on the cross of Jesus C. Towards this I want to come with a series of small sacrifices, and spiritual and corporal, of the senses” (G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., op. cit., pp. 42-43).
107 Here is the dialogue between Fr. Alberione and Cleric Giaccardo: “We have to put at the place of the Bianchi advertisement one of the bookstore.” “Will it earn more,” I interrupted. “If it earns more, I do not know: but it is of greater advantage to souls. Now quærite primum regnum Dei: the rest is gain!”. Fr. Alberione continues: “Look after the substance: in accounting look after the substance, simplicity: when you shall be quite ahead, adopt as well a modern, precise accounting, you will do well: for now look after the substance. They were saying: To open a similar House we need directors, professors... If we wanted to begin like that, the house would not have ever been opened!” (G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., 19 March 1919, op. cit., pp. 261-262).
108 Commenting on Mt 6:24-33 before the Pious Disciples on 16 September 1962, Fr. Alberione says: “ 'Seek first the kingdom of God,' in the first place, holiness and the other things shall follow suit, adiicientur vobis. That is the apostolate: to seek the kingdom of God either with Adorations or with priestly service or the liturgy. But above all, for every individual: holiness. First, that the kingdom of God be in us, that is, that we are saints, then the reign of God on all the earth, and then, all the rest is added, et hæc omnia adiicientur vobis. Because (the comparison is very material): if you buy meat from the butcher he thinks of adding the bone as well” (G. ALBERIONE, Alle Pie Discepole del Divin Maestro, Rome, 1986, no. 164, p. 166).
109 “From us the Lord demands as well special faith, faith that must distinguish us from the others: this faith is the foundation of the Casa. The Casa possesses it and it shall succeed, but he who does not possess it shall not succeed and shall be a stumbling block to others. We need to have faith also without us understanding: because the Sig. Teologo himself does not understand certain things: and here is the proof of faith: when one works and believes without seeing, even more, with contrary foresights. What an act of faith had the Cottolengo to make when he was about to found the Piccola Casa, and he was believed to be crazy, and no one was supporting him! But faith made the miracles. What must we believe: that God wants the B.S. (Buona Stampa = Good Press), that God wants our Casa for the B.S., that the necessary knowledge will be acquired, also with less studies, and knowledge for writers and journalists, that one will have the piety that God requires from us also almost without spiritual direction. That God will send true vocations, also when the B. S. is little understood among our people; that God will send what is necessary for the job, the money, food and nothing shall be wanting” (G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., 19 March 1919, op. cit., p. 260).
110 Gastaldi writes about Giuseppe Benedetto Cottolengo: “The grace of ingenuity, that sprang up in Giuseppe, through miracle so to say, demonstrated as well how God had for him designs that were not ordinary and common... Grateful, then, the young man for the sake of such a precious gift, wanted to show his gratitude for it, by proposing and setting his mind to want to become a saint. He then started to penetrate deeply this truth, that God saw him in every place and in every moment; and wherever he would go and whatever he would do, God was most present to him, and he was most present to God. Not content with having etched it in his heart, he wanted to see it with his own eyes; and so on the frontispieces of books and notebooks, instead of short sayings or epigraphs as was customary among the young, he used to write this truth: God sees me. In his study room, bedroom he had hung a billboard that reminded him continuously of God's presence; he was not satisfied with this either, and perhaps in order to remind others, he had painted in big letters on the wall along the courtyard where he used to play with his companions: God sees me” (P.P. GASTALDI, I prodigi della carità cristiana descritti nella vita di San Giuseppe Benedetto Cottolengo, Piccola Casa della Divina Provvidenza, Cottolengo, Torino, 1959, pp. 18-19).
111 “The Venerable Father, speaking sometimes of prayer and of trust that one must have in God, spoke of himself: Whenever one can ask the Lord for some specific thing, also things material, the Church herself gives us the example, nonetheless, as for me, I would be afraid to fail if I should ask in a similar manner, because I am attracted by another spirit. He therefore prayed much, very much, but in his prayer he was asking neither for help nor assistance; and speaking with the patients themselves, he used to say: In the Piccola Casa no one has ever to pray for material bread. Our Lord, he used to add, taught us to seek first the kingdom of God, and the rest would follow, and we must pray like that. I do not condemn anyone, he used to say some other times, but as for me, along the road that God wants for me, I feel instead the duty to pray that way, and to abandon myself completely in his hands praying: Quærite primum regnum Dei, and this is enough for us. He knows our needs: Scit Pater vester quia his omnibus indigetis; let us think only in making him happy; let us pray to him, yes, but in broad lines. From such a noble beginning it happened that not only the saint but no one else in the Piccola Casa, at least in public, asked for particular requests for temporal needs, many instead prayed that they become saints; and thousands of times during the day and night, this most beautiful prayer was repeated: Virgin Mary Mother of Jesus, make us saints” (P.P. GASTALDI, I prodigi della carità cristiana..., op. cit., pp. 314-315).
112 In places of the Pauline Family being born the example of the Piccola Casa della Divina Provvidenza was being perfectly followed; to always say, “Deo gratias,” as it can be garnered from the testimony made by Domenico Bosso in the process of Beatification and Canonization of Cottolengo: “No action was ever begun without invoking God's help; often this phrase was said in Domino: and it was willed that these words were repeated by the Piccola Casa. Then the houses and the various families and courtyards had sacred names, for example, Providence, the House of God, Hope, Faith, Providence, Charity, etc. Then the families were placed by him under the protection of saints. He founded the whole Piccola Casa on faith. It is enough for me to say that he had established the Deo gratias in the Piccola Casa, with which he wanted, beginning with himself, that everything were received from God, material bread, spiritual bread and all the rest, repeating always, Deo Gratias! He considered all the benefactors of the Piccola Casa as so many instruments of the Divine Providence and wanted for everything thanks be given only to God by repeating Deo gratias and in the receipts of money or of things the Venerable ordinarily wrote the Deo gratias. I take note that in the Piccola Casa the Deo gratias is heart beat of every family and that even in our times it is repeated for every small thing received either from the superiors or from companions. Also in the church for the public, whoever has finished his sermon, the patients greet him this Deo gratias, as it was already mentioned at the end of the sermons of the Venerable. And he wanted that these repeated this Deo gratias also when some accident takes place or when one received some correction as he himself used to do in similar instances, one of which I have referred to earlier, so that he wanted the Piccola Casa to live in gratitude and thanksgiving towards the Lord by always hoping in the Lord, hence, in Domino and Deo gratias were the heart of the piccola casa” (Recensio Virtutum, pp. 19-20, in SACRA RITUUM CONGREGATIONE, TAURINEN. BEATIFICATIONIS ET CANONIZATIONIS VEN. SERVI DEI JOSEPHI BENEDICTI COTTOLENGO, Nova Positio Super Virtutibus, Romæ, 1899).
113 “He who gave everything to the Casa is the Divine Providence and the Sig. Teologo wanted that we expressed to the Lord the sense of gratitude by Deo gratias, as it was done at the Piccola Casa of Cottolengo: and the use was introduced among the older ones and the young, and the Deo gratias repeated each time one receives something good. Besides, it is the form that one reads in every epistle, the hymn of thanksgiving of St. Paul, also for the least of things” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VII, no. 4, 15 April 1924, p. 8).
114 “With so much horror for sin from the start of the Piccola Casa, he [Cottolengo] wanted that at the beating of the hours everyone prayed: a peccato mortali libera me Domine (from all mortal sins deliver me, Lord). After a short while, however, observing that being delivered from mortal sin was quite little, he wanted yet that each one be delivered from venial sins, too, so correcting, he let people say: ab omni peccato libera nos Domine (from all sin, deliver us Lord). If something contrary happened, or if the Divine Providence was delayed with his aid for a while, he used to immediately say, let us examine our conscience, as if to say that he was rather finding out if he himself has committed some sin, though small, to delay that much the divine assistance. So it went that he used to say, let us examine ourselves, it must be me, I must be the cause of the delay. Doing so, he was doing more than any sermon or correction. From here followed that the Venerable Servant, aside from the examination of conscience that by rule he gave to the Piccola Casa in the evening during time of prayers, he wanted that during the aforementioned circumstances of adversity an examination of conscience by each one be done, asking himself, could it be I the cause so that Providence is late in coming?” (Summarium super dubio, Summ. Num. IX, De Heroica Charitate in Deum, p. 401, in SACRA RITUUM CONGREGATIONE, TAURINEN. BEATIFICATIONIS ET CANONIZATIONIS VEN. SERVI DEI JOSEPHI BENEDICTI COTTOLENGO, Positio Super Virtutibus, Romæ, MDCCCXCVI).
115 An expression of these two points of reference are the works of St. Alphonsus and of Chautard, that inspire the meditations proposed by Fr. Alberione: “Aside from the Spiritual Exercises on piety, all the meditations and spiritual labor of this year are directed to the interior life in order to develop it; the dear Father read to us and explained very well The great means of prayer in the first part. Now he has taken up The soul of the apostolate. All the novenas are directed to the resolution of the Exercises and the sermons are conclusions on it” (G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., 17 January 1919, op. cit., p. 252).
116 The celebration of the Conversion of St. Paul, on 25 January 1919, was utilized also as a monthly retreat. Giaccardo affirms that the four entertainments of the dear Father were such that in order not to vaguely narrate it, photographs would have been needed. He nonetheless quotes the words of Fr. Alberione: “Listen attentively to me, open your ears and don't sleep: stay awake. In every effort, you should progress ten times over. Why so? Because the Lord calls you to a most lofty holiness at which you cannot arrive with but your own efforts and with ordinary graces. How much holiness! ... You are at the foot of a great mountain, climb up, look at your horizon: it is the whole world; when a ball is so smooth and round, let it rest on well-polished marble, only a part of it touches and all the ball's weight is on that point. On your conscience a million, three million, ten million souls weigh... this is why you should be very holy and much holier than ordinary priests. It is all about saving many souls, of saving ten million or saving a million only. But the Teologo is crazy to speak to us of ten million. I say that a good journalist saves much more. Raise your eyes, look up to a giant tree whose top you can't see: this is our Casa and it is truly a huge tree, you are nothing but the roots. The present Casa is nothing but the root of this giant tree. Oh, if you only understood the treasure that is in you, where the Lord calls you, you shall all be full of life, and you will not let yourself stay put, that is, you shall not leave the Lord alone, you shall be beside him to tell him, 'But I still need this, but I still need that, but give me yet this grace...' But, you will say, where does the Teologo want to bring us tonight? I want to bring you to the mountain of perfection. Understand how much must you be saints” (G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., 1919, op. cit., pp. 254-255).
117 “The only irritations are these: I am not yet sufficiently good and you are not yet saints enough. As for the rest, it matters to me as much as a slipper in the drainage. If you love me, take also these irritations, feel them, suffer them, choose to free the house of them. We need more spirit of humility, of docility, of enthusiasm; everything depends on your fervor, perfect union of spirit and heart with me is needed. Go ahead, take to yourselves these irritations, the only irritations of the Heart of Jesus and pray much. In Heaven we shall see how much harm our sins has done to our institute; we shall see how holiness was the only true irritation here on earth. We shall laugh over the other irritations and we shall be amazed how we have not done much of this second” (G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., 15 February 1918, op. cit., pp. 191-192).
118 In 1919, beginning from 13 April, mention is made more and more of the Society of St. Paul. Cf. also 25 April 1919, 25 May 1919, 30 June 1919, 17 August 1919 (cf. G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., 1919, op. cit., pp. 263ff).
119 “For days now, the dear Father is imparting on us the truth above [= faith and holiness]. This evening he told us: 'The next issue of the UCBS shall describe the house. Let us try to welcome for this summer about ten boys. I count on you, too. Pray: that the Bulletin be well accepted, that it produces fruits, that young boys having the vocation come, that they allow themselves to be trained; you are firm, having good will, capable of training them. That I may understand how to get along with festina lente (move fast by slowing down), and another thing that I know'.” (G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., 21 February 1919, op. cit., p. 259).
120 In the quoted sermon of 19 March 1919, Fr. Alberione continues: “We should not think that this faith comes only from God; we also ought to sweat it out to acquire and keep it. When all human forecasts are against, to firmly believe is a great merit and it obtains grace. Faith under test: do you believe that before the year ends we shall have 40 boys? Let no one doubt: if someone doubts, we shall have only 39. Do you believe that by January the second machine shall have been paid? If one doubts, about a thousand lire less!” (G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., 19 March 1919, op. cit., pp. 260-261).
121 On 30 June 1919, before the first renewal of the vows, Fr. Alberione takes into consideration 'why the casa is not bearing all the fruits': “It is said, because we are not united enough among us in charity and in spirit: but the root evil is found in our lack of adequate spirit of prayer and the above is solved: from it follows the resolution: ALL OF US SHALL DO AT LEAST A QUARTER OF AN HOUR VISIT TO THE MOST BLESSED SACRAMENT! The dear Father spoke of this resolution in the casa as if it were a matter of primary importance. As love is nourished, we could ask for more and we could achieve an hour a day for adoration. After 17 days all of us have been faithful with a little exception: and most of all we are very happy about the resolution” (G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., 30 June 1919, op. cit., p. 267).
122 “The first week of the month in the Casa: Monday: St. Paul, Rites for the Cooperators of the Good Press; Tuesday: Souls in Purgatory; Wednesday: St. Joseph; Thursday: Guardian Angel; Friday: Blessed Eucharist, Sacred Heart, hour of adoration. Saturday: Mary Most Holy” (G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., 1 September 1919, op. cit., p. 285).
123 “Along with newspapers and weeklies, for sometime now, parish bulletins have surfaced. They have the purpose of integrating the parish priest's work: by bringing the parish priest's word also to those parts of the population that, for whatever reason, do not participate in the instructions of the parish priest; for reminding also by writing notices of the parish priest; for keeping alive and making all the institutions that have arisen in the parish (child-care center, hospital, catechism classes, etc.) prosper. In the Diocese of Alba there are about twenty of them; as far as we know none of the parish priests who started its publication had second thoughts over it or had to suspend publication. Voluntarily, the population has given and the bulletin has never been at a loss. The Scuola Tipografica of Alba prints some of them of every size, periodicity and format. It also tries to facilitate the work either for the price as for the compilation and the shipping. For example, it could provide shared materials for two or three pages of the periodical: it can take care of shipping, etc. Ask for samples, quotations, etc., from the Scuola Tipografica of Alba” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year II, no. 5, May 1919, p. 2).
124 Cf. Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year I, no. 2, 28 November 1918, p. 3. In issue no. 6, June 1919, p. 5, notice is posted that the necessary amount of L. 20,034.95 was reached; it concluded: “Trust was not in vain: the machine was fully paid, as one can see in the statement we are publishing above. H. E. Our Bishop has deemed to come and bless it: we hope that by divine grace, things proceeded well. Therefore we address our most felt gratitude: with prayers for everyone, the Lord's great blessings to all.” Cf. also G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., 5 March 1919, op. cit., p. 259, where mention is made of an acquisition of another machine that would cost £ 16,500. Cf. Ibid., 30 May 1919, pp. 265-266, where Giaccardo speaks of the Bishop's blessing and of the name “Paolina” given to the Linotype.
125 “In every parish. There ought to be an outlet for selling books and religions articles... The members of the Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa are especially invited to see to it that the outlet-selling point is opened in every parish. No one more than they know well what the good press can do: and perhaps few other ways of diffusion can achieve results as much as a store-selling point can do” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year II, no. 5, May 1919, p. 6).
126 It seems useful to quote the entire promotion article: “Library made!!! Let us propose to the Ladies and Gentlemen Cooperators of the Good Press. A certain number of them are desirous to promote small libraries for the common good of the population of a parish as a whole, or especially of a certain class of persons. Well, the bookstore of the Scuola Tipografica, using the method already practiced in England, provides at fixed prices, a small library, with selected books, secure as regards good morals, at very special conditions. For now, it proposes for every kind of person the following, while proposing to offer later other kinds for ladies, students, workers, farmers, etc. Small library of 25 books L. 25. It includes 5 volumes of light reading, 5 volumes of lives of saints, 5 volumes of culture, 5 of ascetics, 5 volumes of novels. Small library of 50 books L. 50. It includes 10 volumes of pleasant reading; 10 volumes of lives of saints; 10 volumes of culture; 10 volumes of ascetics; 10 novels. Small library of 100 books L. 100. Includes 20 volumes of pleasant reading; 20 novels; 20 volumes lives of saints; volumes of ascetics; 20 volumes of culture. Small library of 200 books L. 200. Includes 40 novels; 40 volumes of pleasant reading; 40 volumes of culture; 40 volumes of ascetics; 40 volumes of lives of saints. We have ready also libraries of 500 volumes: of culture, of educational and pleasant narratives, etc. That we could offer at L. 450” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year II, no. 6, June 1919, p. 2).
127 The list of newspapers (Gazzetta d'Alba, Torre di S. Stefano Belbo, Avvisatore Ecclesiastico Albese Astese Alessandrino Saluzzese), about fifteen Parish bulletins, five published books, Bookstore and bindery, Catechetical specialties (Christian doctrine for 3 classes), Class booklets (for fourth grade) and Easter Cards (cf. Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year II, [no. 2?, between February and April] 1919, p. 8).
128 Two books of Fr. Alberione are introduced La donna associata allo zelo sacerdotale and Vigolungo Maggiorino Aspirante all'apostolato Buona Stampa, and the book Un modello di Catechista Emilia Moglia, by Can. Francesco Chiesa (cf. Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year III, [July
?] 1920, p. 8).
129 “The dear Father called around himself the Pious Society of St. Paul; he admonished for not keeping him well informed about what is happening in the Casa; then he went back to the basics. We need to form the family: otherwise the work of the G. P. (Good Press) dies with us. Because of this it is necessary that we should be united among us first of all, that we love each other, that we help one another, that we pray much; and that we fill ourselves well of the spirit of the Casa. We need to form the spirit: to work for God: the Sig. Teologo in order to train us to live by ourselves does not offer us caresses: we resist. We need to form the family” (G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., 25 May 1919, op. cit., p. 265).
130 Giaccardo would receive the name Timoteo, secretly wanted by him, on the occasion of his religious profession on 30 June 1920, after his priestly ordination.
131 Cf. G. ALBERIONE, LV01, p. 92.
132 “10 February 1920. Many things worth noting and useful to us and to our children are taking place: I forget or do not find time to write. This year is called the year of consolidation as last year was the year of vocations. The current year brings to mind what the Sig. Teologo said inaugurating the first of January” (G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., 10 February 1920, op. cit., p. 288).
133 “We prayed for a house. St. Paul has given us the grace the day of his conversion: he has given us a field in a very good location. Providence is to be admired: three suitable lots, at the eve of closing the deal every contract provisions went off; this, unplanned, came; and no one thought of having it. Hence, it is the place of God: the prayer that everything gets done rests under the feet of Jesus in the Blessed Sacrament signed by all the components of the Society of St. Paul. Means are thought as to how to pay the 350,000 lire debt. First: faith and prayer; second: holiness and diligent work for the G. P. (Good Press); third: each one does his part well so that we could earn at least our food through work” (G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., 10 February 1920, op. cit., p. 288).
134 “Then: Master: look for souls that would do good by helping the G. P.; Torquato: secret ways of Providence; Assistant: U.C.B.S. and the means of the bookshops: holy pictures, cards; Vice-Piazza: subscriptions to the Gazzetta, lottery...; Ambrosio: subscription. The Sig. Teologo directed every project and work. Everyone prays and the processing of papers regarding the contract are also taken into consideration: legal security, construction...” (G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., 10 February 1920, op. cit., p. 288). The assistant is Costa and the Vice, Marcellino, as we can see in this text: “27 September: Today assistant Costa and Vice Marcellino have arrived from Bergamo: they have happily passed the first course of social sciences. Deo gratias!” (G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., 27 September 1919, op. cit., p. 286).
135 Cf. G. ROCCA, La formazione..., op. cit., p. 559.
136 “One of the first young men attests that, on November 1919, the founder told him straight: 'Take courage: next year we shall have a big printing press and a beautiful house, and then a beautiful Church that we will dedicate to St. Paul. But we are not going to stop in Alba.' And many years later during the course of exhortation to his young men, the founder confided that, while he was examining for the first time the lot wherein the houses and the Church of St. Paul now stand, he had a moment of mysterious confusion during which he saw most clearly the entire complex of buildings, the way it is now seen by the visitor” (L. ROLFO, I primi passi (1914-1930), in AA.VV., Mi protendo in avanti, Edizioni Paoline, Alba, 1954, p. 117). Cf. G. ALBERIONE, Mihi vivere Christus est, Edizioni Paoline, Roma, 1972, no. 138.
137 “We expect from Providence. What do we need? We need a house capable of accommodating a hundred people: because currently the Printing School has 46 and this number shall have to double soon, in order to still increase. Hence a shop where about ten printing machines could be placed (which is the number that the Printing School has and where the compositors, printers, linotypists, binders, shippers and proofreaders could comfortably work; at least three rooms for the director's office, accounting, conference room; rooms useful for study, classes, kitchen, refectory, chapel, etc.; dormitory for an adequate number of beds; vast courtyard wherein the young could do recreation; garden and vegetable patch so we could save a bit of the considerable amount that currently is spent for meat and vegetables. For now, we only want to provide for what is immediately necessary. At what point are we? A piece of land, big enough for building a house, allow a courtyard, a garden and what is necessary for the current need and also that of the near future. It has cost much though: but what is not too expensive these days: The area is found in Alba and it covers the property commonly called Fornace; it is found near piazza Savona, at the left of one who goes from the city and leads to the Sanctuary of the Moretta and goes to the limits of the street. The five paths. Varied are the ways through which Providence will send us what we need: 1. There are his secret ways of which we men know little or nothing. 2. let us open pledges. 3. We approach people who have. 4. We promote a lottery. 5. Address ourselves to the cooperators of the good press” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year III, no. 2, 1920, pp. 3-4).
138 In the month of June  digging was done; during the first fifteen days of July, the foundations were finished; in the second half of the month construction of the walls began; at the time of writing (25 September) the steel beams are being placed for the vault of the first floor... The ground floor is destined for the printing machines, warehouse, with two rooms that would be used for visitors. The place for the machines is notable: it's height is convenient, length is 20 meters, width 11.5, it could very well accommodate 10 machines, allow yet a free space for the printers to move about and a corridor for helpers, for the transport of forms, paper, etc. Well visible, airy, abundant light; it could be equipped with an elevator to allow the compositors of the hall upstairs to bring the forms for printing. The student printers almost every evening come to see the building of their place of work and they bless Providence and pray for their benefactors. The spirit with which the house of the Printing School is being built is different from that which pushes the building of other houses. Here work is done as if to raise a Church: from the Church of the Good Press the word of truth shall continually go out, word that is written on paper; it shall fly to all parts in order to enlighten, comfort, urge towards good. Even more, this house shall be as if a Seminary of Apostles and Workers of the Good Press! It is going to be a seedbed, a blessed greenhouse from where they shall be transplanted into many, many places (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year III, no. 7, September 1920, pp. 3-4).
139 Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year IV, no. 5, 15 July 1921, p. 10.
141 Ibid., year IV, nos. 3-4, 10-15 April 1921, p. 2.
142 Ibid., year V, no. 2, March 1922, p. 4.
143 On 16 March 1921, Giaccardo writes: “The words of the Sig. Teologo on our holiness penetrate my soul, shake me up: I propose to pray better... I can see that the Sig. Teologo runs and runs, and I am able only to follow after him, on my part, I can do only the least!” (G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., 6 March 1921, op. cit., p. 298).
144 Giaccardo's description is precious: “A rather stormy wind has risen these days against the Casa; it came as a serious economic problem; 'The Sig. Teologo was disillusioned, rejected by the ecclesiastical authority: these voices have also hit the parish priests of Vezza (Fr. Vigolungo) and of Benevello (Fr. Brovia). The Sig. Teologo drew the balances of the Casa and there is a surplus of 524,000 £. Good, a letter arrived from Pisa; it insisted that we went to Card. Maffi. The Vicar Msgr. advised us to stay in Alba. Msgr. Bishop tells Can. Chiesa that he esteems the printing school more than he did. These things referred to the aforementioned persons, and to whomever needed it, calmed the winds, and the ever good Lord wanted to grant us, in his mercy and wisdom, serenity” (G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., April 1921, op. cit., pp. 298-299).
145 “A new Socialist dirty trick has bloodied the streets of another Italian city. On the municipal hall of Ferrara the red flag waves since the last elections: and the comrades wanted, on 19 December, to hold a protest rally at the municipal theater for certain maltreatments that were said to have been done against two officers of the party in Bologna, Bentini and Niccolai. The authorities, who had permitted the socialists to hold the meeting, could not forbid the adversaries to hold a patriotic demonstration in the hour following the meeting in the theater: thus was it arranged. It was not true, however, that the socialists kept the injunctions of the authority: hence while the fascists and the nationalists in closed groups went through the principal roads of the city, at the corner of the Piazza del Commercio, they met a group of socialists from the League of nurses of the mental hospital, preceded by a red flag. Plunging forward to take the flag, they were welcomed by a pistol fire that wounded one of the fascists. At that signal, from the terrace of the oranges which, from the Castle's top, dominated the street, started a storm of rifle fires against the fascists who found themselves between two fires, surprised by the ambush and in a very dangerous situation. The victims were many; three dead and twenty wounded among the fascists; among the bystanders: a person dead and a number of wounded, among whom was Doctor Magrini who was going to the hospital” (cf. Cronaca contemporanea, 23 December - 6 January 1921, in La Civiltà Cattolica, year 72, vol. I, quad. 1694, 8 January 1921, pp. 180-181).
146 “In the entire country bloody clashes still continue, clashes that we deplored in the preceding reports, with the addition of some circumstances that makes brutal violence even more repugnant. In not a few cases, the clashes are seen to be provoked by predatory aggressions by socialists against the fascists... It is becoming clearer, however, through the confession of the same leaders of fascism, that the movement, started early as a reaction against the acts of arrogance of the socialists-bolshevists-communists or anarchists of some breed, not infrequently goes beyond the limits, thus committing the same sin of arbitrary violence rightly brandished against the subversives and doubling the confusion instead of benefiting order and public peace. To cite some example of arbitrary acts of arrogance made part of the fascists' ways, it is enough to recall the abuse committed in Pisa some days ago against Hon. Modigliani who was traveling with his wife, and was obliged to get down the train that the troublemakers did not want to depart. In Pavia, Hon. F. Mani, insulted while seated in a café, followed up to the higher floors of the house, was brutally beaten and attempts were made to throw him down through the balcony to the street because he did not want to shout what the caprice of those violent men was imposing on him. In the same manner the Hon. Albertelli was jeered and called a villain in Pavia while obliging him to withdraw from a public meeting place and retire in his house. In many places, the fascists broke into private homes looking for men of another party and beating them up and offending them in all manners, just as they did in Mantova against the Socialist Zanolli, with an open violation of a private residence” (cf. Cronaca contemporanea, 28 April - 12 May 1921, in La Civiltà Cattolica, year 72, vol. II, quad. 1702, 14 May 1921, p. 371).
147 “The duel between socialists and fascists is becoming more bitter and bloody every moment at the expense of the country's order and peace. The socialists, as usual, shout to hoarseness against their adversaries, who are making themselves complaining victims of their acts of violence; however, on closer look, it is like an affair between shipmasters and mates. Meanwhile, however, it cannot be denied that Italy, not only in major cities, but in the smaller neighborhoods and even in the rural areas, looks like a country not worth calling a civil one; for that matter, we would want to give proof to this the events of the weeks. On the 6
th of April, in Padova a fascist student was attacked and beaten by workers; in return, the Labor Office is devastated and burned. The next day, a fascist is maltreated and wounded by the railway workers at the station of Reggio Emilia; his companions came to his aid to defend him and these occupied the Labor Office and the offices of the socialist newspaper La Giustizia and set it on fire. On the same day, in Venice there was fisticuffs between two parts in the Campo santi Apostoli: the guards intervened: two pistol shots against them; one dead and fifteen wounded... And the destruction is multiplied each day so that it would be quite long to follow their marks. While we write, troubles, rumbles, gunshots, fires in Taranto, in Minervino Murge, in Ortenova, in Spinazzola, in Parma, in San Damiano in the Piacentino area, in Legnago, in Viadana, in Campitelio, in Girgenti, in Nettuno, in Arcole, in Iglesias, Sardinia, again in Turin, in Livorno, in Figline Valdarno; and we can continue the sad listing if this were not enough to show the state of deep disturbance with which the country is being reduced” (Cf. Cronaca contemporanea, 7-28 April 1921, in La Civiltà Cattolica, year 72, vol. II, quad. 1701, 30 April 1921, pp. 275-277).
148 “The savage bullyings and the socialist criminal aggressions against the Catholics are being multiplied in a rather serious manner; it is clear by now that there is an order, a violent campaign to suffocate, perhaps also in blood, every manifestation of religious freedom. The most recent tragedy took place at the Abbazia San Salvatore, that one in Siena, on Sunday, 15 August. The feast of the Assumption was being celebrated there with a procession wherein mostly women and young girls participated. The socialist league held on the same day a meeting wherein a socialist lawmaker, among the most furious bolshevists, had vented all his bile against priests and the police, exciting those villains to every excess. In fact, a group of those brutes affronted the procession and, having beaten the priests, “they wounded seriously the parish priest and brandished fists and batons as if they were crazy”. Then, as the Resto del Carlino reports, a newspaper not suspected of anticlericalism, “sensing that a group of running ruffians was directed towards the church of the Convent, the police officer of the carabinieri went there with 17 officers: but the socialists met them with stones and pistol fires. Two shots fired at close range wounded the targeted Nazzareno Ciarrocchi who died moments later, and some stabs brought down police officer Burriggi. At this sight, the police officers used their guns; and the flag bearer Ovidio Sabbatini, who the soldiers are certain to point as the one who shot the victim, fell wounded by a bullet.” At the same time a group of socialists had penetrated the church, attacking the faithful who had taken refuge there. A religious, Friar Angelico of the Minors, was killed. In the terrifying mix-up that followed, the police officers had again to use their guns for defense, and the church echoed with shots from one side and the other: two of the aggressors and a poor child fell in their blood. The police officers had to withdraw to their headquarters and braced themselves up against the mob that tried to set them on fire. New gunfire and stones and pistol shots until 10 in the evening. The count of the day amounted to eight dead and numerous persons wounded; furthermore, many of the rebels were arrested. In exchange, the socialists, as usual, called for a general strike, the height impudent brutality after the most ferocious brutality” (cf. Cronaca contemporanea, 12-26 August 1920, in La Civiltà Cattolica, year 71, vol. III, quad. 1685, 28 August 1920, pp. 464-465)
149 Cf. L. ROLFO, I primi passi (1914-1930), in AA.VV., Mi protendo in avanti, op. cit., p. 127.
150 Cf. S. LAMERA, Lo spirito di don Giaccardo, servo di Dio, Edizioni Paoline, III edition, no date, p. 115.
151 Cf. G. BARBERO, Il sacerdote Giacomo Alberione..., op. cit., p. 311.
152 G. ALBERIONE, Sectamini fidem..., Ricordi del Primo Maestro ai Sacerdoti Sampaolini, Pia Società San Paolo, Alba, p. 48.
153 Cf. G. BARBERO, Il sacerdote Giacomo Alberione..., op. cit., p. 362.
154 “The Founder always attributed a great importance to this dream that should date back to 1923 and, perhaps, during the first months of that year when his health was about to suffer the most serious crisis of his life, in the sense that the words he was saying to have heard from the lips of the Savior became for him a certainty and a program of life” (L. ROLFO, Don Alberione, Appunti per una biografia, Edizioni San Paolo, 1998
3 , p. 187).
155 C. A. MARTINI, Le Figlie di San Paolo, op. cit., p. 129.
156 P. GILLI, Così come mi ricordo, Cenni sulla storia della Congregazione, Alba, July 1995. Unpublished notes entrusted to the author at the CSP.
157 Transcription of the video recording of the round table discussion held at the Stabilimenti del Gruppo Periodici, in Alba, on 13 September 1995, with the participation of Acc. Antonio Buccolo, Prof. Edoardo Borra, Dr. Gianfranco Maggi and Dr. Piero Reggio. Cf. M. BUCCOLO, Alba 1914-1925: don Alberione fondatore e il suo tempo, in Il Cooperatore Paolino, no. 9, November 1995, pp. 12-13.
158 “The courtyard had to be done as soon as possible: during the rains it became a pool that stayed on for a while. The inconvenience was serious. Twenty young men of Priocca offered themselves to level it off. A beautiful Monday morning they came in two carts with shovels, picks, pails... Heading the group was Mr. Corsero Stefano, who was doing a lot of good to our Casa. They leveled down the hump in front and expanded the courtyard for more than three meters. They raised the ground in various places by 30, 40, 50 cms., by transferring soil with hand a drawn carts or horse a drawn. If they worked on their own, they would not have done so with greater fervor... The work was finished late Friday evening” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VI, no. 2, 27 February 1923, p. 4).
159 We reprint entirely this memorable page: “In front of the machines. Reflections. The machines are material, and this would not have any attraction to the Christian: it were not that man himself were spirit alone. But this material thing that makes up the machines are God's handiwork, and are worked on by the marvelous ingenuity that God has entrusted to man. These marvelous machines become dear and venerable as the pulpit to the sacred speaker. St. Paul in that monument of science and charity raised before the centuries, his letter to the Romans, exclaims: faith comes from hearing and from hearing the gospel: how beautiful are the footsteps of those who proclaim peace, who announce joy! How beautiful are the machines meant for the good of those evangelizing. The apostle of the good press before the machines experiences something more than St. Francis when he felt the hymn for brother sun come through his soul. The thought of the apostle goes through the machine that makes it material in paper, that is, almost alive, because it brings eternal truths, spiritual nourishment that feeds an infinite number of readers: not by bread alone that man lives, but by every word that comes from the mouth of God. Divine wisdom, through the divine word, has nourished the heart and the soul of the apostle, who has meditated on it in the Divine Scriptures. From his soul it has taken form, is incarnated, become material through the melting pot, the coils, the gears, the plates, of a machine; it has come out with a body of paper; it shall become the thought of other men, of other souls; it shall cross seas, go mountains, turn into brothers the sentiments, the ideas of two souls who have never seen each other, the writer and the reader; Christian the writer, Christian the reader. The divine truth illumines the world, the kingdom of Jesus, wins over new minds, new spirits, new hearts. The missionary of the good press loves his machine; he wants it beautiful, modern, very fast, so much so as to reach and overcome in the race the bad press; he loves his small church, keeps it clean and orderly; he dreams of it as always working, bringing forth good word. I wish to be found always at the pedestal of my machine. The saints are painted with their tools in hand, the symbols, the emblems of their sanctification: I, apostle of the press, wish to be portrayed with the pen and inkwell, or standing straight near the machine that runs. How can one otherwise paint on a canvas the thought of that most broad mind that was Tertullian: a day shall come when the ink of writers shall be as valuable as the blood of martyrs. The martyrs show swords, bonfires, grates, crosses, wild beasts... And how are many saints represented? St. Paul is depicted with a book of his epistles in hand; St. Thomas holds a pen between his fingers, Dominic Savio holds in his right hand a sheet of paper; the evangelists are shown writing down in scrolls what the Spirit of truth inspired them; St. Francis of Sales has beside him the works that made him be declared doctor of devotion; St. Gregory the Great is portrayed in the act of writing his book of Morals; St. John Berchmans keeps close to his chest the book of rules meditated upon for long” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year IV, no. 5, 15 July 1921, pp. 5-6).
160 Ibid., p. 8.
161 G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., May 1921, op. cit., p. 299.
162 G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., 19 June 1921, op. cit., p. 299. “To live entirely in common” here means most likely “having everything in common.”
163 G. ROCCA, La formazione..., Document no. 31, op. cit., pp. 569-570.
164 G. ROCCA, La formazione..., Document no. 31, op. cit., p. 570.
165 G. BARBERO, Il sacerdote Giacomo Alberione..., op. cit., pp. 319-320.
166 G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., 10 February 1918, op. cit., p. 190.
167 Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year V, no. 1, 5 February 1922, p. 5.
168 Ibid., p. 3.
169 Ibid., p. 7.
170 Ibid., year V, no. 7, August 1922, p. 4.
171 Ibid., p. 2.
173 Ibid., p. 4.
174 G. ALBERIONE, Quaderno 39, 29 November 1909, p. 15.
175 R.F. ROHRBACHER, Storia universale della Chiesa, 16 voll., Giacinto Marietti, Torino, 1869-1870
176 Cf. for example, G. ALBERIONE, Quaderno 39 and R.F. ROHRBACHER, Storia universale della Chiesa, op. cit., vol. IV, pp. 149ff.
177 G. VENTURA, Le donne del Vangelo, Giosuè Rondinella Editore, Napoli 1856-1875; ID., La donna cattolica, 3 voll., Carlo Turati, Milano - Dario G. Rossi-Genova, coeditori, 1855; ID., La Madre di Dio Madre degli uomini ovvero La Santissima Vergine a piè della croce, Rondinella & Loffredo, Librai-Editori, Napoli, 1903
178 Cf. F. ANDREU, Ventura, in Dictionnaire de Spiritualité, vol. 16, fasc. CII-CIII, Paris, 1992, coll. 364-372.
179 Cf. G. VENTURA, Le donne del Vangelo, op. cit., second part, pp. 24-77.
180 Ibid., p. 34.
181 Ibid., pp. 41-42.
182 Ibid., pp. 42-43.
183 Ibid., pp. 43-44.
184 Ibid., pp. 44-45.
185 Ibid., pp. 45-46.
186 Ibid., p. 48.
187 Cf. Ibid., pp. 49-67.
188 Ibid., p. 53.
189 These references to DFst are valid also for the next numbers of this section (nos. 125-131).
190 G. ALBERIONE, La donna associata allo zelo sacerdotale, op. cit., p. 46.
191 Ibid., p. 24.
192 Ventura's work helps to locate Fr. Alberione's affirmations on the “Woman's apostolate in the past”, in the fourth chapter first part of the book “La donna associata allo zelo sacredotale” (The woman associated with priestly zeal), 1915, pp. 42ff. Cf. for example, what Fr. Alberione writes about St. Olimpia (pp. 49-50) and the II vol. of La donna cattolica, pp. 126ff. Although Ventura favors the exposition on woman as mother and in the non-monastic church roles, and leads himself to present the women who worked in the French Church, the book La donna cattolica serves as a very vast point of reference for the mind of Fr. Alberione.
193 G. VENTURA, La donna cattolica, op. cit., vol. I, p. 258.
194 Ibid., p. 259.
195 Ibid., p. 260.
196 Ibid., p. 263.
197 Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year V, no. 7, August 1922, p. 9.
199 Cf. Ibid., year V, no. 4, 6 May 1922, p. 8.
200 Cf. G. BARBERO, Il sacerdote Giacomo Alberione..., op. cit., pp. 373-374.
201 Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year V, no. 7, August 1922, p. 11.
202 Cf. C. A. MARTINI, Le Figlie di San Paolo..., op. cit., p. 119.
203 Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year V, no. 7, August, 1922, p. 10.
204 G. T. GIACCARDO, Diario..., July 1922, op. cit., p. 300.
205 Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year V, no. 8, 10 September 1922, p. 2.
207 Ibid., year V, no. 12, 23 December 1922, p. 3.
208 “Work accomplished. In 1922, 350,000 copies of the Gazzetta d'Alba came out of the Printing School; 482,000 copies of parish bulletins of all formats and frequency; 120,000 copies of Vita Pastorale (magazine for priests); 150,000 of small and big catechism books; 9 books of devotions, for a total of 27,000 copies; 36,000 copies of “Dottrina e fatti”; 12,000 copies of “Armonie Sociali”, a sociology magazine of the Pontificio Ateneo of Bergamo. Two collections of novels “Tolle et lege” and “Fons aquae” for a total of 69,000 copies; eleven books of different kinds: in all 27,500 copies. Furthermore, 70,000 calendars were published; Easter cards of different kinds, about 75,000; about 75,000 of religious leaflets, an immense quantity of circulars, sheets, posters, registry books and tickets for catechism. And yet, nothing was really done! In the field of the press and face to face with the bad press we are nothing but an infinite minority, an imperceptible dot! We need vocations, printers, aids” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year V, no. 12, 23 December 1922, p. 4).
209 In the Cenni storici generali della Pia Società S. Paolo, (Historical references of the Pious Society of St. Paul) , after having spoken of the beginnings of the foundation projects of Fr. Alberione, in 1903-1904, and of the two first young men, initiated in 1908 at the schools of the Seminary, there came a growth in number of students in the Casa. “On August 20, the first student entered to begin the new family; in 1915, they were 9; in 1916, the number went up to 14; in 1918, to 25; in 1919, to 35; in 1920, to 42; in 1921, to 90; in 1922, to 172” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VI, no. 2, 27 February 1923, p. 10).
210 Cf. Ibid. , pp. 2-3.
211 These references to the DFst are valid also for the following numbers of this section (nos. 138-143).
212 IGNATIUS OF LOYOLA, Autobiografia (Autobiography), n. 3. Cf. ID., Gli scritti, edited by M. Gioia, UTET, Torino, 1977, p. 660.
213 A. RABALLO (Suor Teresa, F.S.P.), Memorie del Primo Maestro Rev. Teologo Giacomo Alberione, unpublished work. Cf. G. BARBERO, Il sacerdote Giacomo Alberione... , op. cit., p. 359.
214 A. RABALLO (Suor Teresa, F.S.P.), Memorie del Primo Maestro.. ., op. cit. Cf. G. BARBERO, Il sacerdote Giacomo Alberione... , op. cit., p. 359.
215 G. BARBERO, Il sacerdote Giacomo Alberione..., op. cit., p. 360.
216 G. ALBERIONE, San Paolo, July-August 1954, p. 2.
217 “Last year  in the evening of 29 June, a first procession accompanied Jesus Eucharist from the inside Chapel in order to take possession of the new church, which was blessed then; on 1 May of this year a second procession aux flambeaux with the singing of the Laurentine Litany, brought in triumph to the new Church the portrait of the Queen of the Apostles; last June 1, St. Paul, the patron and the soul of the casa and of our Pious Society, was made to stay near blessed Jesus, the Divine Master, and Mary Queen, in the church dedicated to him” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VI, no. 6, 21 June 1923, p. 7).
218 In an article of June 23, entitled Eucharistic dates, the UCBS bulletin draws the development of the Eucharistic spirituality of the Casa from the beginning to 30 May of that year: Mass, Communion, Eucharistic presence, Eucharistic laus perennis, visit, greetings and short visit. Especially significant are the beginning and the end of the article: “The devotion to the Divine Master in the Casa is concentrated on the Holy Tabernacle. When the Casa was still small and composed of very young people, Jesus was satisfied that they went to him in the morning for Mass and to receive him in Holy Communion. We, however, already knew that when the Casa would have developed we would have the laus perennis eucharistica as at the Cottolengo. Meanwhile they grew bigger, one started in 1917 to make the visit to the Blessed Sacrament every day in S. Damiano... On 22 July  visits were thus established: the members of the Pious Society of St. Paul would make an hour of visit to the Blessed Sacrament every day during free time; the Servants of Mary half an hour of visit together everyday; the Disciples and the students twenty minutes together. The Daughters of St. Paul would also make an hour of visit every day; the others, half an hour. This rule now exists in the Casa. Thus in the afternoon, from 2 to 9 Jesus continually has adorers while in the morning from 4 to 8 Masses follow one another. And so we were able, thanks to God's mercy, to bring to realization that which is the dream at the beginning: the laus perennis... Half a day of Laus Eucharistica! But also during hours in the afternoon or morning they find us often present before the Tabernacle and we trust in another mercy: that Jesus would remain exposed from 4 to 21 hrs. And the other hours of the night? Oh also they are and must be of the Divine Master present in the Tabernacle!” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VI, no. 6, 21 June 1923, pp. 8-9).
219 Its own iconography is developed during the first ten years of the Casa: “The picture of St. Paul was placed in the Casa at the place of honor, between the Artistic Sacred Heart of Morgari, and the Immaculate by Murillo... The first and every Saturday of the month is consecrated to Mary: and in honor of Mary, the month of May with flowers, flowerettes, with thoughts and meditations; the close of the month of May, since the first year, was a divine poetry, a mystic harmony of hearts, of heartbeats, of flowers, of prayers, of songs. The devotion to Our Lady is the leverage of every initiative, of every progress, of every success, of victory over the devil, of the most beautiful and loftiest holiness” (San Paolo [= UCBS], year VI, no. 11, 22 November 1923, p. 8).
220 “In the Casa, the whole month of June, which is the Casa's great month, is consecrated to St. Paul: twice a day he is spoken of: twice a day we go to visit him and render him homage and He exchanges our homage and love with abundant graces. The devotion to St. Paul is made popular in Alba and also outside: many are those who pray to him for conversion, for material help and they obtain it: in his church almost continually there is someone present, and the candles before him burn almost continuously” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VI, no. 6, 21 June 1923, p. 7). - In 1923 UCBS, which from August to November comes out under the title San Paolo, publishes so many short articles on St. Paul. Mention is made of “Paologia dantesca” (Dantesque Paulology) (San Paolo [= UCBS], year VI, no. 8, 25 August 1923, p. 19) and, of all this, of the Eucharistic heart of St. Paul, as if he cultivated the devotions after the ways of the Casa (cf. Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VI, no. 7b, 20 July 1923, p. 5). Interesting are the brief articles on “The Paulines during the apostolic times, ” following the liturgical calendar: St. Thecla: 23 September (Ibid. , no. 9, p. 5), St. Dionisius the Areopagite: 9 October (Ibid. , no. 10, p. 3), St. Clement of Rome: 23 November (Ibid., no. 11, p. 5), St. Philemon and St. Appia: 22 November (Ibid. , no. 12, p. 4), St. Timothy: 24 January (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VII, no. 1, 15 January 1924, p. 4), S. Titus: 6 February (Ibid. , no. 2, p. 8).
221 In the issue of February 1923, the publication of the “General historical references of the Pious Society of St. Paul” begins. The annotations of the Historical references... of the June issue are interesting: they refer to the transfer from Villa Moncaretto to the Casa Perrando [=Perraudo], along via Mazzini; it is noted that the name Little Worker is removed and remains alone the name Printing School, it concludes: “The Casa developed and assumed its face in casa Perrando [=Perraudo]” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VI, no. 6, 21 June 1923, p. 6). The July issue describes how, in the quarters along Via Mazzini, there was but one heart and one soul around Fr. Alberione and adds: “In the parlor of the Casa was placed, on very modest little throne, the picture of St. Paul: it was the very first beginning of the Chapel of St. Paul: there, kneeling down on the floor, they were reciting the morning and evening prayers, the “Angelus”; the examination of conscience was done, the Hail Mary is said before going out and as soon as entering; kneeling on the floor, the prayers of the Casa are said. An electric lamp was kept lighted in the Casa and in the Press. St. Paul watched, protected, blessed, gave growth” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VI, no. 7b, 20 July 1923, p. 7).
222 Ibid. , p. 13.
223 San Paolo [= UCBS], year VI, no. 11, 22 November 1923, p. 1.
224 Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VII, no. 1, 15 January 1924, p. 12. Especially felt is the presentation of the Bible Society: “Bible Society Section. Why spread the Gospel. Let's go back a little. Christian life will not be in us if Jesus C. does not infuse it; neither do the most marvellous discoveries make it come in us! The Jansenists blocked the Chrisian from the source of their own life: from the Eucharist and from the Gospel, and Christian life languished. Pius X, saint, whose greatness shall appear ever greater in the future, reattached the Christians to these sources and immediately one could see a reflourishing. If, however, much was done for leading people back to Communion, one cannot say so for the penetration of the Gospel among the people, although much work has been done on this. Thus work, discipline, order, pain, joy, poverty, wealth, entertainment, authority, force, rights, the law, private and, worse, public economy, everything is seen and guided by principles and maxims of the world, rationalistically and naturalistically; where the secondary causes reach, there is confidence; beyond it, nothing. It is because of this that we need to shout strongly to the low and the high with private propaganda and even more, with public affirmations, pertaining to the Gospel, to make it esteemed and to create its environment. From here, O people, we can move on to Christ, the only way and life, and he who is God only has done and said this and none other. This is for us a duty and a serious responsibility: we have salvation in our hands. Jesus Christ has entrusted it to us and he has imposed it on us to apply it; let us apply it with all patience, but also opportune et importune. J. C. shall ask of us an accounting of the blood that flows under our eyes, of the moral and material ruin that is accumulating, and of the souls that are lost. We cannot remain idle spectators and let it pass without any newspaper comment or complain, we are priests, other J. C., what would he have done in our place? This is the reason why the Gospel is spread: to reattach the intelligence of our people to the divine mind, so that thoughts and judgments are harmonized with it and consequently, actions. From this one could see already the spirit that is behind the Bible Society, farthest from any commercial speculation that could also do some good, but above all that the kingdom of J. C. should come into the minds and the hearts through the Gospel, and bring them back to communicate with the life of J. C.” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VII, no. 8, 15 August 1924, p. 11).
225 Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VI, no. 12, 15 December 1923, p. 2.
226 Ibid. , p. 13.
227 San Paolo [= UCBS], year VI, no. 11, 22 November 1923, p. 8.
228 An unpublished notebook containing 68 pages of Fr. Alberione's manuscript and 49 pages of Fr. Giaccardo. Missing are many sheets; for example, those regarding the fourth, fifth, seventh, eighth, ninth and 23
229 Cf. A. DAMINO, Bibliografia di Don Giacomo Alberione, Roma, 1994
3 , pp. 31-32.
230 Un mese a San Paolo, meditazioni e letture, Pia Società San Paolo, Alba, 1925. Contains texts by Fr. Alberione, completed and reworked in some parts by Giaccardo.
231 Cf. L'Immacolata e il Natale, in Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VI, no. 12, 15 December 1923, pp. 2-3.
232 Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VII, no. 1, 15 January 1924, p. 11.
233 Quaderno manoscritto Timoteo Giaccardo, no. 6, p. 125.
234 Cf. Ibid. , pp. 125-130.
235 Cf. Ibid. , pp. 132-150.
236 Probably this meditation was held during the mass of Sunday, hence, in the morning.
237 Quaderno manoscritto Timoteo Giaccardo, no. 6, p. 133.
238 Cf. Ibid. , pp. 150-155.
239 Cf. Ibid. , pp. 150-151.
240 Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VII, no. 2, 15 February 1924, pp. 11-12.
241 “Hence by the coming autumn, a house annexed to the Society of St. Paul for the young persons who aspire for the missions: with the understanding that they will work for the infidels and schismatic, in a special manner (not exclusively) with the press. Already 14 young men have requested to join, considering that the time destined for it is already usable “ (G. ALBERIONE, in Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VII, no. 2, 15 February 1924, p. 3).
242 “So that the spread of the Gospel may become greater and greater, a society from among the Cooperators was formed, with its own Statute. Outline of the Statute:
1 - At the Pious Society of St. Paul the section “Bible Society” of the Union of Cooperators of the Good Press has been instituted.
2 - The diffusion and penetration of the Bible, and in a special manner of the Holy Gospels, are proposed.
3 - It is made up of perpetual members who contribute L. 1000 once, of outstanding members who contribute L. 500 once, of ordinary members who contribute L. 5 every year, of those who make one Communion a week in behalf of the work, or are committed to spread the Bible personally, or with the newspapers and other means.
4 - They participate in life and after death with the Thousand Holy Masses that every year are celebrated in the Pious Society of St. Paul, with the indulgences granted by the Holy See to all Cooperators of the Good Press and with the good the Pious Society of St. Paul does.
5 - They receive monthly the bulletin “Unione Cooperatori B. S.” where a report shall be made of the good done.
6 - The income from the offerings are committed to the spread for free or with minimal prices of the Bible and of the Gospel.
7 - The Director's Office is at the Pious Society of St. Paul.
This present statute has the approval of the Bishop” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VII, no. 2, 15 February 1924, p. 5).
We must remember here also the influence of the encyclical Spiritus Paraclitus of Benedict XV, published on 15 September 1920, on the occasion of the fifteenth centenary of St. Jerome, wherein the importance of the study of the Sacred Scripture is called for.
243 For those who thirst for souls - Like Jesus -. “Lord, I offer you, in union with all the Priests who celebrate the Holy Mass today, the Divine Victim, Jesus Host, and myself, a small victim.
1. In reparation for the innumerable blasphemies, errors and obscenities that are printed in so many printing presses from where every day emerges a river of paper that floods the world like putrid waters;
2. To invoke your mercy on the numerous readers, perverted or innocent, that the scandalous press grabs away from your Heart as Father, thirsty for souls;
3. For the conversion of many writers and blind printers, ministers of satan, false teachers who have raised their teachings against the Divine Master, poisoning every teaching, the human thought and the fountains of human activity;
4. In order to honor, love, listen only to Him, whom You, O Heavenly Father, in Your great heart have given to the world, saying: “This is my beloved Son: hear Him.”
5. In order to know that Jesus alone is the perfect Master: that is the Truth that enlightens, the Way or model of every holiness, the true Life that animates, that is, the sanctifying grace.
6. In order to obtain the grace that the number of Priests, Religious men and women, consecrated to the spread of the doctrine of Jesus through the press multiply.
7. In order that the writers and workers of this press are saints, full of wisdom and of zeal, for the glory of God and for souls;
8. In order to ask you that the Catholic Press may prosper, be spread, assisted, and be multiplied, thus raising its voice in such a way that it covers the inebriating and alluring clamor of perverse press;
9. In order that all may know our ignorance and misery, and the need to keep our pleading eyes and our heads bowed to your Holy Tabernacle, O Lord, invoking light, pity and mercy” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VII, no. 2, 15 February 1924, p. 4).
Notice especially the fifth point that shows Jesus as perfect Master: “Truth that enlightens, the Way or model of every holiness, the true Life that animates, that is, the sanctifying grace.” Cf. “Per chi sente sete di anime come Gesù”, Offertorio Paolino, by A. COLACRAI, Edizioni Archivio Storico Generale Famiglia Paolina, no. 8, Roma 1985.
244 “The Pious Disciples. They are a religious family of daughters, in Alba (Piemonte), from 16 up. They are consecrated to adore, continuously by turns, the Divine Master, Jesus in the Blessed Sacrament, in order to bring to reality the “Your kingdom come” especially by means of the Good Press. They live common life in the manner of sisters living the vows privately. Each of them has two hours of adoration each day: aside from the common practices of piety, they are engaged also in common chores (sewing, mending, etc). They live in their own house, under the guidance of the Superior of the Pious Society of St. Paul. They are to be chosen among the young women inclined to piety, especially the Eucharistic one. They shall be healthy in body and in mind, and that they are not beyond the age of 25 years. Joining, they do not pay any fee of sorts, but they have to be furnished with enough personal outfit; and for their clothing, for two years, they will take care of the expenses for clothes, laundry, etc., etc. TEOL. ALBERIONE GIACOMO.
The House of the Pious Disciples. For the Pious Disciples, the furnishing of the house at the end of the garden is being properly done: there will be place for fifty daughters, and for their work of laundry, sewing, etc. The House has a divine name: it is called “Divine Master,” and he who wants to know where the Pious Disciples are, the answer is, at the “Divine Master's” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VII, no. 2, 15 February 1924, p. 28). - For further studies, the following carefully prepared studies published recently by the Pious Disciples may be consulted, especially: R. CESARATO, L'albero visto dalle radici, Le Pie Discepole del Divin Maestro tra carisma e storia, Notes, booklet 1, Manuscript use, Rome, 1997; R. CESARATO - G. M. J. OBERTO, L'albero visto dalle radici, Le Pie Discepole del Divin Maestro tra carisma e storia, Notes, booklet 2, Manuscript use, Rome, March 2000; AA.VV., Eucaristia, Sacerdozio, Liturgia, l'unità come mistica del servizio, Acts of the International Seminar on the unity of the three apostolic dimensions, Camaldoli, 22 February - 5 March 1998, Rome, Manuscript use, October 1998.
245 Cf. this Introduction, no. 144, footnote 218.
246 Cf. R. CESARATO, Dagli inizi al 1944, in R. CESARATO - G.M.J. OBERTO, L'albero visto dalle radici... , op. cit., Booklet 2, p. 43.
247 “The Signor Teologo Alberione officiated at the ceremony at 6:30 and gave everyone a name, and celebrated the Holy Mass for them and said 'paternal words that they had to meditate on'. It was a small recollected ceremony, simple of meaning and of love and of joy and of exaltation for those daughters who, with intense desire, wanted the day and the hour to come soon. A little ritual was prepared for this ceremony. Here are the names of the eight Pious Disciples who made the first religious clothing: Sr. Scholastica of the Divine Providence, Sr. Antonietta of the Divine Master, Sr. Mary of St. Joseph, Sr. Teresa of Our Lady of Sorrows, Sr. Annunziata of Mary, Sr. Paolina of Jesus' Agony, Sister Giacomina of the Guardian Angel, Sr. Margherita of the Souls in Purgatory” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VII, no. 4, 15 April 1924, p. 24).
248 Cf. M. RICCI, Madre Maria Scolastica Rivata, fedele Discepola del Divin Maestro, Not for sale edition, Rome, 10 February 1996. Orsola Rivata was born in Guarene, on 12 July 1897. It is probable that she may have heard Fr. Alberione during his preaching in Guarene, for example on 9 October 1910 (on the Most Holy Guardian Angels) and on 10 April 1910 (on St. Vincent Ferrer and the importance of God's Word). She joined the Daughters of St. Paul in Alba on 29 July 1922.
249 Cf. this Introduction, no. 113.
250 “The Pious Disciples. They are a religious family, at the side of the Daughters of St. Paul. They welcome young girls who want to consecrate themselves to the Lord with the perpetual adoration of the Eucharist, praying for the spread of the kingdom of O. L. Jesus Christ, and spending the remaining time in common chores for the Priests and the religious of the Good Press (sewing, mending, kitchen work, etc.). They profess the vows before the Lord and in particular they have two hours of adoration each day. They have their own habit... The name of the “Pious Disciples” is derived from their role: they have to accomplish before the Divine Master the role of the Pious Women, that of the first among the Pious Women, that is, the Blessed Lady. To adore Jesus, console him in the Most Blessed Sacrament, to be in vigil before the Holy Tabernacle in order to burn even more and better than candles of wax, to pray to the Divine Master for the triumph of the Good Press over the bad, then to do the tasks and service for Priests, those that Our Lady was doing for Jesus and the Apostles. Thus their humble life is summarized, life lived in silence, in love, in prayer, reminded also by the color of their habit that bears the colors of Our Lady; white and blue, with the eucharistic rays, burning on the breast” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VIII, no. 9, 20 August 1925, pp. 10-11).
251 Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VII, no. 11, 15 November 1924, p. 20.
252 Ibid., year VII, no. 5, 15 May 1924, page after cover.
253 Ibid. , year VII, no. 8, 15 August 1924, pp. 1-2.
254 “The new Paulines have also assumed a new name, a witness and an admonition to the newly clothed man” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VII, no. 8, 15 August 1924, p. 8).
255 “The arrival of a student or of an adult in the Casa is welcomed with that pleasure, with that joy that is had for a newborn child. As of now, the principal duty of the Daughters is especially the formation of the spirit that prepares them to become good apostles. As the new ones arrive, they find their Guardian Angel, and are raised as little plants. To them are taught the way of making well the holy meditation, how to practice the exercises of piety: the Holy Mass, the Holy Communion, spiritual reading, the Holy Rosary, spiritual work, the examinations of conscience in the morning, at noon and in the evening, the manner for doing good confession, for staying united with the Lord; to imitate more closely the examples of Jesus, especially his obedience, humility, spirit of sacrifice and love. Then the young ones with filial trust they reveal their spirit to their Assistant, the adult ones to the Mistress of Novices, by manifesting the difficulties met, the defects, the virtues, the holy desires, in order that they be guided, comforted, and supported in the personal and constant work that each has to do in order to win over herself, in order to progress in the purity of heart and in the gradual practice of the virtues” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VII, no. 8, 15 August 1924, p. 22). - In this same period, is published the handbook Metodo di esame particolare, secondo Sant'Ignazio, Alba, Pia Società San Paolo, no date, pp. 54. At the end of the book the weekly graphs useful for marking failures and victories in the daily spiritual work.
256 Among the commitments listed in one of the “Ora et labora” is found the spread of the Gospel among Christian families and of the Giornalino, an illustrated color weekly for children, whose publication began on 1 October 1924. The October issue of the UCBS informed: “The Section of the 'Bible Society'. The spread and penetration of the Bible among the people is being proposed, and in a special manner of the Most Holy Gospels. In a year of life, 200,000 copies of the Holy Gospel have been diffused. Under preparation as well are the unified Holy Gospel, the Holy Gospel for families, the Holy Gospel for children, the letters of St. Paul and of the Apostles, the Sunday Gospel pamphlets, the complete Bible” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VII, no. 10, 25 October 1924, p. 11).
257 G. ALBERIONE, A tutti i cari e buoni Cooperatori della Pia Società San Paolo, Alba, 31 December 1924, in Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VIII, no. 1, 20 January 1925, p. 1.
258 Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VIII, no. 1, 20 January 1925, p. 9. The February issue opens with an article on The Letters of St. Paul, wherein, among others, it is affirmed: “We managed to examine and had others examine the manuscript of the Letters of St. Paul, which is in Rome for the revision: it was found to be truly beautiful and within the reach of the people, both for their clear translation, simple, and for the notes, abundant, suitable and alive... St. Paul has a mission and a social, religious duty, which has to be well valued: it is the ministry for the Gospel for the Gentiles. Humanity was divided by a deep division: God's people (the Hebrews) and the people not of God (all the rest of mankind). Jesus Christ came to save all, the ministry of St. Paul was this: to preach the universality of redemption and to attach the people not of God to that of God making out of it only one people, to graft the wild olive into the good olive, so that all may be saved. His letters do this work: instaurare omnia in Christo, to restore all things in Jesus Christ: and then to make men live a heavenly life, because the members of the body, that first have been used for evil deeds, might now be consecrated to the service of God as living hosts and temple of the Holy Spirit. Even more: that the whole nature, ruined also as it is by the original sin, might be associated with man in a continuing hymn of blessing to God... We hope that the great Apostle, who takes the pagan people and plants them on Jesus Christ in order that his spirit may penetrate in them and vivify their whole life to the point of making man God, shall know how to attract not only admirers, not only critical scholars, but souls that may love him, that may fall in love with him and attempt with him at ascending to God until vivo iam non ego, vivit vero in me Christus” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VIII, no. 2, 20 February 1925, pp. 1-2).
259 The Church of St. Paul was built between the Casa San Paolo (at the right of one who faces the façade of the Church) and the Casa della Divina Providenza (on the left), and parallel to the Casa Regina degli Apostoli. The August 1924 issue of UCBS publishes the photograph of these three houses (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VIII, no. 9, 20 August 1925, pp. 7-8).
260 Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VIII, 1 April 1925, pp. 1-2. In this same issue, information is given that “a movie projector has been bought, for the educational recreation of the grand days. At the beautiful evening of Easter was presented: Fabiola, with St. Sebastian, St. Agnes, St. Tarcisius and the art of maps” (Ibid., p. 9). Reference is as well made as regards other new means of apostolate: “Train, telegraph, telephone, stenography, linotype, rotogravures, electricity, etc. These elements that God created for his glory... woe to us if neglectful we let the kingdom of satan make use of them” (Ibid. , p. 24).
261 Considerations on the need to hurriedly build the Church of St. Paul are often found in the UCBS bulletin, also in order to meet the needs of the numerous members of the Casa, that now reached the number of 408 persons, coming from 30 Italian provinces (cf. Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VIII, no. 9, 20 August 1925, p. 1). On May 1925, a four-page pamphlet, like a supplement of the UCBS, is published. It contains an interesting introduction of the Casa to the Cooperators and Friends: “This family is composed of two big branches: the interns, the members of the Pious Society of St. Paul who are working for the spread of the Gospel and who pray; they are the male Religious and the Daughters of St. Paul; and the externs, the Friends and Cooperators, take care of their works and help the Casa with their offerings.” The Pious Disciples are called sisters: “The family of the Pious Disciples is also born in the midst of the Casa. They are sisters who, aside from attending to the ordinary needs of the numerous Institute, take turns day and night, uninterruptedly before the Most Holy Sacrament, exposed in the Chapel, in order to pray for God's blessing over the Casa and on the families of Cooperators” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VIII, 10 May 1925, p. 1).
262 Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VIII, no. 9, 20 August 1925, pp. 7-8. The celebrations of the Feast of the Divine Master, for the spread of the Gospel, increase. The enthronement of the Gospel is solemnized as it is learned from the description of what was done in Benevello: “On the little throne, at the right and at the left of the Raggio are placed two books of “The Divine Master,” the unified Gospel, quite visible, in order to also materially project the idea that the Holy Gospel is like the continuation of Jesus Eucharist, his Parabola (=Parable) [Parola = Word], his complement” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VIII, no. 13, 20 December 1925, p. 20). The book referred to is Il Divin Maestro, a concordant text of the Four Gospels, with notes, Società S. Paolo Editrice, Alba-Roma, 1925.
263 Quaderno manoscritto Timoteo Giaccardo, no. 6, p. 125.
264 Ibid. , p. 132.
265 Ibid. , p. 150.
266 This combination among Truth-Master-Doctrine; Way-Example, and Life-Grace is not new in the Casa. Rather, already in 1910, speaking to the seminarians of Alba, Fr. Alberione affirmed: “It is after the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ that we have to model ourselves: quos præscivit et prædestinavit conformes fieri imagini Filii sui. He has given us the example of the highest and perfect virtues. He is such a good Teacher that while he teaches, he gives us the example and communicates medicinal grace to our weak will” (G. ALBERIONE, Quaderno 8, 1 June 1910, p. 35). Furthermore, Timoteo Giaccardo notes in a text of his Diario of September 1918: “On the evening of the entrance, after the prayers, the Sig. Teologo introduced me to the young ones and gave me the name of maestro and invited me to say some words: I did not want to talk because I was not ready. I would have said: if I entered today = after a year or more... I would say: Master: I obey: but our master is only one: Jesus who speaks to us and cultivates us through the Sig. Teologo.” In another text of the same period, Giaccardo has certainly in mind the trinomial Truth, Way, Life, considered under the aspect of doctrine, example, grace, where the term Master acquires a special connotation with Truth-Doctrine: “Jesus Master: 1. Vos dicitis me magistrum et bene dicitis quia ego sum: with doctrine, with example, with grace. 2. The Teologo lets me be called master: I must have doctrine, example, prayer. 3. Examination of conscience, resolution, prayer” (cf. Quaderno manoscritto Timoteo Giaccardo, no. 68, schema LXX).
267 F. CHIESA, Gesù Cristo Re, Pia Società San Paolo, Alba, 1926.
268 F. CHIESA, Gesù Maestro, Pia Società San Paolo, Alba-Roma, 1926.
269 F. CHIESA, Ego sum Vita, Pia Società San Paolo, Alba-Roma, 1927.
270 F. CHIESA, Gesù Cristo Re, op. cit., p. 22.
271 The magazine La Civiltà Cattolica published, on 11 September 1926, a review of the book that we are quoting completely here: “Along the marks of Pius XI's Encyclical, 'Quas Primas' the cleric Canon Chiesa has drawn thirty readings, 'that, distributed through the days of the month of October, shall be useful as very good preparation for the feast of the kingship of Jesus Christ' that falls on 31 October this year. The idea has been most opportune and the A. has had the good fortune of executing it on time and well, two things that usually don't go together well. The book, which can be of great advantage to the clergy, also for preaching, leaves nothing to be desired for precision in doctrine, which is proposed in clear and worthy form of this most noble subject. We would have omitted, in a book of this kind, the figure at the start of reading XXIV, and the explanation which, at some points is not clear, e.g. on p. 239 where a printing error (la volontà unita alla morte [?]) makes the Author's psychological analysis less clear. The thirty readings by Fr. Chiesa, on the sovereignty of Jesus Christ, show also how important is this prerogative, which reunites around its light, so to say, all the splendors of the Catholic doctrine, as for example one could see from the readings XVII-XXI, on the Kingdom of Jesus Christ, on its general form, its organic constitution, the form of government, the extension of the Kingdom, that give an exact idea of the true Church of Christ” (La Civiltà Cattolica, year 77, vol. III, quad. 1830, 10 September 1926, pp. 535-536).
272 Cf. La Civiltà Cattolica, year 77, vol. I, quad. 1814, 8 January 1926, pp. 97-126.
273 In F. CHIESA, Gesù Cristo Re, op. cit., p. XI. The importance for Fr. Alberione of this passage of Quas primas can be derived also from the fact that it inspired the monthly retreat of the Feast of Christ the King, on 31 October 1926, according to the notes taken down by Maestra Thecla Merlo (cf. Quaderno no. 4, unpublished, pp. 5-6).
274 “The Kingdom of God covers the universe, society, families, but it is certain that its final purpose are we. It is in us, or in our soul, in our person that Jesus Christ wants to reign. Regnum Dei intra vos est. All the perceptible universe is not worth a soul. The soul is spirit and in the spirit there is freedom. In the spirit God exemplifies himself. In the spirit the entire universe returns to God, because the spirit is capable of knowing that everything comes from God, and everything returns to God, thus giving knowingly and freely glory to Him, as the first Principle and final End” (F. CHIESA, Gesù Cristo Re, op. cit., p. 234).
275 Can. Chiesa presents some important considerations for the interpretation of the DF. In the first place, he traces its framework in the faculties: “The kingdom of Jesus Christ must above all be established in our soul. This we have considered in the preceding reading. But our soul has various faculties: intellectual, sentimental, moral faculties. Let us see now how this kingdom must be established in our mind” (Ibid. , p. 245).
He then starts his teaching by speaking, in the first paragraph, of the importance of the idea, compared to a seed that gives origin to an animal or a plant, to a cedar of Lebanon or to an elephant. He continues: “On what does all this depend? From the entelechia as Aristotle would say; - from the form, as St. Thomas would say; - or from the soul that gives it form. If that matter is in-formed in the soul of a grain of wheat, it shall become grain, if in the soul of an elephant, then it shall grow into an elephant. What guides the evolution of the seed is the soul. In fact, from where did the infinite diversity of species and the variety of living things come? Precisely from the soul... Now, we need to think that what animates it, in the biological evolution, is the idea in the history of men. Alfred Fouillée wrote beautiful books on the idea-force. Eymieu, in his Governo di se stesso, beautifully utilized the doctrine regarding our education. Everyone knows, in whatever century, that the thought is always the seed of progress. The whole of the Christian era has come from the Christian idea that was spread, penetrating humanity deeply and producing its fruits... In short, I repeat: the idea is a seed; and to have a plant one must sow the seed, in the same manner to have men of developed character, one must begin from the idea. Education must begin from instruction. Nothing can be willed and judged without it being known. Nil volitum quin præcognitum, so the proverb says. And thus, Christ's kingdom must begin from the mind. Before it is Christian life, it must be Christian idea. Without the idea, life would be wanting of foundation” (Ibid. , pp. 245-247).
In the second paragraph of the reading, Chiesa affirms that wherever Christ's teaching is found, there is the Christian idea and that “Jesus Christ is King of the mind, because he is essential truth like God, and because in Him dwells the fullness of wisdom and divine knowledge.” He goes ahead indicating that the Christian idea is found in the Sacred Scriptures and in the Christian tradition and is interpreted by the Magisterium.
In the third part of the reading, he affirms that we must know the Christian idea through study and listening to the teachings and appropriate them through faith, that must be universal, firm and constant (cf. Ibid. , pp. 247-253).
276 “The will of God is manifested in three principal modes: in the commandments, in the examples and in the events. The first and the second are called will of sign, the third is will of approval... And what commandments! To love God above everything and our neighbor as ourselves. To respect life, honor, things, good name of neighbor. To give food to the hungry, clothing to the naked, to forgive one's enemy, to do good to him who offends us, and many others of which the Gospel is full. Other things more perfect, e.g., evangelical poverty and perfect chastity belong as well to the will of Jesus, not as command, but as counsel. The same will of Jesus the Christ is manifested in the examples. Rather, the examples of Jesus comprise the first expression of his will. Coepit facere et docere (Acts 1:1). And what an abundance of examples! His birth in a poor shed in Bethlehem, and the whole of his private life of thirty years are the most effective expressions of his will that commands us humility and love for poverty and for hiddenness. What a clear expression of his will in his fasting of forty days, in the continuous example of prayer, of union with his Eternal Father, of meekness, of patience, of forbearance. What would we say then of his Passion, of his prayer for his enemies, of his death on the cross? The example is much clearer and much more effective than the word. Verba movent, exempla trahunt, so the proverb says. Words move, but examples draw. How much have we thanked our Divine Savior for deigning to give us his examples! Words could always leave some uncertainty on the manner of practicing the law. But example takes away all shadows. The will expressed in the examples comes to us through Imitation of the life of Jesus. Finally, there is the will of approval that is manifested in the events. Also here, how vast is the field of the Kingdom of God in us! All the events of history, of our family, of our person, express divine will, or at least divine permission. Good or bad weather, abundance or want, health or sickness, wealth or poverty, peace or war, success or failure, life or death, everything takes place around and within us, everything we can recognize as coming from God” (Ibid. , pp. 259-261).
277 “1. The human heart. - Physiologically the human heart is a muscle as big as the fist, that is the propulsory center of the circulation of the blood. Inasmuch as all the parts of the body are maintained by the blood, one could say that the heart is the cause that nourishes and preserves the human body. Psychologically speaking, the heart is the center of the affective life. We can consider in the heart as if various levels or strata that represent different degrees of the affective power of man. First of all the tendencies constitute the base of the heart, first of all the tendency for happiness. This brings with itself the other tendency to hate everything that may bring distaste and unhappiness to the heart. Above the tendencies come the inclinations, that are tendencies, too, but are more defined. Thus, for example, the tendency for happiness generates the inclination for wealth, for honor, for work and the like. The inclinations, however, are dispositions permanent in character, calm and equal. Passions, that occupy the center and principal part of the heart, are placed over them and they form even a vast and complex world within us. Over the passions fluctuates variably and changeably the multitude of sentiments and affections... 2. How can one establish the Kingdom of Jesus in the heart. It is clear that to have dominion over one's heart must be something of very great importance. Of a certain king it was said: if you want to win him over, try to win over to yourselves first his favorite minister who holds the key to his heart. The will is the queen by right; but the heart is its favorite. Having dominion over the heart is having dominion over the man. Fortunately, however, the will can have a dominion of industriousness, as St. Francis of Sales would say, over the heart. How then can one lord it over the heart? This way: by letting a true and strong love enter into it, and this is the love of God. Already we have observed above that all the twelve generals of the army of the passions are under the command of a supreme general, which is love. Thus St. Agustine says: Ama et fac quid vis. Love and do what you want. If divine love dominates the heart, we can tell one without fear: do what you want. We are sure that he will not do anything but what is good” (Ibid. , p. 267-271).
278 “1. The body and its members. - Man is made up of soul and body. The soul is the invisible and spiritual part, the body is the visible and material part. We intend precisely to speak of this body inasmuch as, united with the soul, it is an essential part of the living and active human being. It can be robust or weak, healthy or sick, perfect or defective. The body may be used well or badly, as the soul. It can be an instrument of virtue or of vice. As for the parts of the body, they are the exit doors of our impressions, as the senses are the entrance doors. Every cognition begins from the senses, and every expression ends at the body or at the members. The name member is given above all to the hands and feet... But together with the other parts there also are the senses, which can be useful for many uses under the rule of the will. [F. Chiesa reviews the eyes, the ears, the tongue, the mouth, the senses of smell, taste and touch]. - 2. In order that the Kingdom of God may extend also over the body and the members. - Even if we consider the body, its members and things by themselves, without any relation with the soul, they as well belong to the Kingdom of God inasmuch as this extends over all created things. Domini est terra et plenitudo eius (Ps 23:1). But we consider here the body and the members inasmuch as they are essential parts of man and hence dependent on the spiritual and immortal soul. In this sense they fall within the spiritual kingdom of Jesus Christ, precisely as they belong to the souls created, redeemed and sanctified by him. - 3. How the Kingdom of God may be extended over the body and its members. - It is something most simple: by making the body and its members serve as instruments not for doing our will, our caprices or pleasures but only for doing the will of God… Here is the genuine turning into truth the famous words: Vivo autem iam non ego, vivit vero in me Christus (Gal 2:20). I live now not I but Christ lives in me. And what is all this? It is the Kingdom of Jesus Christ, that, begun in the mind, has moved to the will, has gone down to the heart to move, to cast its light with the body and in the members. It is the complete realization of the Kingdom of Jesus in us!” (Ibid. , pp. 279-286).
279 F. CHIESA, La chiave della vita, Pia Società S. Paolo, Alba-Roma, 1927. Cf. A. F. DA SILVA, Cristo Via, Verità e Vita, centro della vita, dell'opera e del pensiero di Don G. Alberione, in AA.VV., L'eredità cristocentrica di don Alberione, op. cit., pp. 253-254.
280 In its 11 February 1929 issue the La Civiltà Cattolica published a very positive review of it: “That the five lessons contained in the beautiful book that the untiring Canon Chiesa presents to the public, should meet 'the satisfaction of the 62 teachers who took part in the course' of teaching culture, organized by the Istituto Superiore di Magistero del Piemonte, and that many of them asked 'officially for its publication' (p. VII) does not surprise us at all. For the solidity and profundity of the doctrine, for its clear, approachable, almost familiar form, for the marvelous order, and tightness of reasoning, it could not be otherwise. And yet. Cl. A., without making his listeners tire too much, guides them to the heights of sublime thoughts. What is the life of man? What in it and through it must he achieve? What would be the natural end of human life, and what is in fact its supernatural end? (pp. 1-48). Hence, our life here on earth is a preparation; we must prepare ourselves for the life of heaven: preparation of the mind by faith and religious instruction (pp. 49-96); preparation of the will by the observance of the divine law (pp. 97-145); preparation of the heart by cultivating the sentiments of the good and the beautiful through virtue and the means of grace (p. 146-195); preparation of the body through mortification and the exercise of what is good (p. 196-258). Such bone structure of the beautiful work, without saying of the clear-headed Author's art, leads the minds to abstract and subtle concepts to offer a solid intellectual foundation to life. It is so for example with the happy comparison with the X-ray (p. 54). Aside from some printing errors (see pp. 3, 51, 65, 71, 76 etc.) some expressions do not seem exact to us like that (p. 58) concerning the light; neither would we say that 'the state of seeing things with one's own and natural light' is for the mind 'object more of renunciation than of exercise' (p. 72); because the supernatural life cannot do away in man with life natural to him. At any rate, the book appears to us to be well conducted and relevant to our times, and we would like that it were read by many” (La Civiltà Cattolica, year 80, vol. I, quad. 1888, 11 February 1929, pp. 359-360).
281 Cf. La chiave della vita, in Donec formetur Christus in vobis, Pia Società San Paolo, Alba-Roma, 1932, p. 16 [DFst 16). Since it is not possible to present here even a simple summary of the points of contact between the La chiave della vita of Francesco Chiesa and Fr. Alberione's thought, it seems interesting to quote at least this passage on the preparation of the will: “Well, here we are ready to understand in what the preparation of the will must consist. We are always in the same principle: to prepare ourselves is to do now what we can do by then. When they spoke of the beatific vision, this meant to train our mind in this world to understand the things of God; how in God it shall see them in the future life. And here what could it mean? It is clear. To begin even from this life to live in the will of God and not in our egoism. The distinction that shall be seen clearly in the future life between the blessed and the damned is seen also in the present life. There are human beings who live by themselves and of men who live in God. Those who seek to do what pleases them are human beings who live by themselves. This is not the way that our Savior and model Jesus, who is way, truth and life, has taught us. He has taught us first with example, and then with the word, that the way to take is another. I came down from heaven, he says, not to do my will but the will of him who sent me (Jn 6:38)” (F. CHIESA, La chiave della vita, op. cit., pp. 128-130).
282 F. Chiesa, Gesù Maestro, Pia Società S. Paolo, Alba-Roma, 1926.
283 F. CHIESA, Gesù Maestro, op. cit., p. 1. The 20 February 1927 issue of UCBS informs that: “The month of January was dedicated to the Divine Master: everyday a meditation was conducted for the Casa on the Divine Master, following the book, Gesù Maestro, written precisely in order to offer the material for suitable preaching” and a synthesis of the book follows (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year X, no. 2, 20 February 1927, p. 12). In the 29 September 1928 issue, the magazine La Civiltà Cattolica published the following review: “The Pious Society of St. Paul, that with so much generous zeal promotes the apostolate of the Good Press, if it publishes often books like this of Can. Chiesa, cannot but find favor and help. Gesú Maestro is a book that shall please and shall do much good to souls; we wish, however, that it were read and meditated upon especially by priests, who, under the guidance of Jesus are called to be teachers. The book certainly deserves it: sure doctrine and expressed with much clarity, drawn from De Magistro of St. Augustine and more from St. Thomas; joy in the presentation of concepts, also the subtle and sublime ones under the configuration of objects and of ordinary relationships and above all a prominence of logical order, that certainly would show even better if the cl.A. expanded the index of titles into an analytical index of doctrines. Canon Chiesa must have intimately formed, in the clear doctrinal visions of St. Thomas, a clear and effectively assimilating mind, to enable him to expose with such precise clarity the doctrine of our means of knowing (p. 46, ff). At times, however, it seems to us that he insists too much on analogies, like precisely that of the sun and of the moon (pp. 46 and 278, ff), and that simple references without entering into a historical wilderness of their doctrines, (see especially Zarathustra, p. 57, ff) at this time, when on the History of religions rather detailed studies are being done, much more when he has not mentioned anything of the masters of the Old Testament. We would have excluded some neologisms in a book that wants to be and is for easy understanding, e.g., valorizzate (p. 9), torpetica [sic!] (p. 193), plastica pedagogica (p. 207)” (La Civiltà Cattolica, year 79, vol. IV, quad. 1879, 29 September 1928, pp. 73-74). In UCAS, part of this review has been taken up more than once, for example, in the issue 12, of 15 December 1928, p. 9.
284 Chiesa's thought that considers nature and the Sacred Scriptures as two teachers given by God to mankind is most interesting: “Tertullian, in a most happy statement that proves truly that he is a genius, summarizes and draws the divine master of humanity and he marks the purpose. He says: Præmisit tibi naturam magistram submissurus et prophetiam, quo facilius credas prophetiæ, discipulus naturæ (De Resur. Carnis, c. 12). It is as if he says: two are the masters (= teachers) that God has sent to mankind: nature and the Sacred Scriptures. God, however, as that supreme teacher that he is, wanted to observe the due order, proceeding from the easy to the difficult. And so what did he do? He sent first nature, because in the variety and magnificence of its spectacles, it could serve as teacher to mankind: and so human beings, taught at the school of nature, could easily profit of the teaching of the Sacred Scriptures. These are his words: 'He sent nature to you first, in order that prophecy would be sent next, and that you could easily believe the prophecy, insofar as you have already become disciple of nature.' Well, we, also face to face with nature itself, already need a teacher who may guide us and help us to interpret it rightly. This we mean especially in the matter that is of our utmost interest, that is, in the field of moral and religious truths” (F. CHIESA, Gesù Maestro, op. cit., pp. 27-28). These are concepts that Fr. Alberione frequently took up in his writings.
285 In her notes of Friday, 25 November 1927, Maestra Thecla Merlo takes note of Fr. Alberione's pointer: “Jesus Christ says: I am the Truth (to understand better this, read the book Gesú Maestro)” (Quaderno no. 4, unpublished, p. 102). On her part, Maestra Teresa Raballo also notes: “Io sono la Verità, to consider it as it deserves, one ought to read the book printed in the Casa, entitled: Gesù Maestro. Topic discussed in the said book under different aspects: philosophical, theological, ascetical and pastoral” (A. T. RABALLO, Quaderno no. 19, unpublished, Friday, 25 November 1927, p. 56).
286 F. CHIESA, Gesù Maestro, op. cit., pp. 138-139.
287 Ibid. , pp. 147-148.
288 Ibid., pp. 155-156.
289 Ibid., pp. 165-166.
290 Ibid., p. 179.
291 Ibid., pp. 180-181.
292 Ibid., pp. 193-195.
293 Ibid. , pp. 207-208.
294 Cf. G. ALBERIONE, Metodo d'educazione, in Quaderno 40, 17-19 October 1911, pp. 143-157.
295 F. CHIESA, Gesù Maestro, op. cit., pp. 213-215.
296 Ibid., p. 220.
297 “We take here the meaning of morals in its broad sense, inasmuch as it refers to the will; it includes then both morals properly called, either ascetical and mystical. We shall now see how the teaching of the Divine Master extends over all these three parts” (F. CHIESA, Gesù Maestro, op. cit., p. 235).
298 “We observe, however, that, speaking of the Press, we ought not limit ourselves only to the printed Gospel. The doctrine of Jesus Master is contained in the Gospel, but not all of it. We recall the words with which the Gospel of St. John ends: 'There are also many other things that Jesus did, but if they were to be described individually, I do not think the whole world will contain the books that would be written' (Jn 21:25). We can consider as doctrine of Jesus not only the Letters of the Apostles and the other books of the New Testament, but the entire Bible. Not only that. At the entrance hall of the Pia Società S. Paolo in Alba, where precisely the Apostles of the Good Press are trained, over a picture the figure of the sun is depicted, casting around itself its light with so many rays. At the center is the book of the Gospel: the rays around represented the other good books, periodicals, sheets that are printed and diffused. Parish bulletins, the Giornalino, etc. In fact, every good book that diffuses the gospel spirit can be called a ray of light of the Gospel. Just as the sun's light forms all the fifteen thousand colors of the iris, similarly the Gospel casts its rays on the entire good press. Now if we observe how in practice the Good Press is achieved, we shall come to know well the manner of cooperation. For the Good Press three fundamental things are wanted: 1) to form people; 2) to print books; 3) to diffuse them. Here is a most vast area of cooperation” (F. CHIESA, Gesù Maestro, op. cit., pp. 417-419).
299 F. CHIESA, Ego sum Vita, op. cit., pp. V-VI.
300 Ibid., p. VI.
301 In her notes of Tuesday, 29 November 1927, Maestra Thecla Merlo notes: “What does it mean: Ego sum Vita (Book)” (cf. Quaderno no. 4, unpublished, p. 107). Maestra Teresa Raballo notes: “The last book of the printed collection is entitled: Ego sum Vita” (A. T. RABALLO, Quaderno no. 19, unpublished, Tuesday, 29 November 1927, p. 60).
302 F. CHIESA, Ego sum Vita, op. cit., p. 331.
303 Cf. A. F. DA SILVA, Tavola sinottica dei documenti relativi al testo di Donec formetur Christus in vobis, 35 pp. (unpublished).
304 “The Exercises are a period of time wherein the novice prepares herself to become a true religious. The novitiate is a time wherein the soul is oriented towards the Lord” (T. MERLO, Quaderno B2.5, unpublished, Tuesday, 11 October 1927, p. 3).
305 Cf. Regole, Pia Società San Paolo, 1927. During the same year 1927, was published the book Corso di Esercizi Spirituali per otto giorni secondo il metodo di S. Ignazio, compiled for the special use of religious and priests by Fr. Luigi Pincelli S.J., 2 vols., Pia Società San Paolo, Alba, 1927. On the following year was published the book of L. BELLECIO, Gli Esercizi Spirituali secondo il metodo di S. Ignazio di Lojola, translated and in some places compiled by Fr. Antonio Bresciani, Pia Società San Paolo, Alba, 1928; cf. A. F. DA SILVA, Il cammino degli Esercizi Spirituali nel pensiero di Don Giacomo Alberione, Centro di Spiritualità Paolina, Casa Divin Maestro, Ariccia, 1981, pp. 33ff.
306 There is no news from the notes taken by Sr. Scolastica Rivata regarding this “Course of Extended Spiritual Exercises.” In her unpublished notebook of 1928 are found notes of themes very similar to those taught by Fr. Alberione for the formation of the female branch of the Casa and contained in lapidary form in the DF. For example, the notes of the “Ritiro. Maestre. 4-28” contain references to the press apostolate, similar to the affirmations contained in the instruction held on 16 April 1928, during the Course of Extended Exercises. One can perceive the particular attention to what was more pertinent to the life of the Pious Disciples: “Jesus has truly done with me as he did with the Apostles; they were poor fishermen, and I am a poor country girl! What did they know of his mission? So do I with the Press Apostolate... I must love the others who are in other institutes as brothers and sisters, but consider that with our Apostolate, we embrace all of them as well, as if the other things necessary for doing good for the glory of God and the welfare of neighbor, this our new apostolate remains to be a new manner for completing, including even others and to do things together. It is not that it is new in its kind because it dates back to the times of Our Lord Jesus Christ, but new in its manner. Few have come to understand the true meaning of the Press Apostolate, and we are those fortunate souls that God has chosen for this very delicate mission. With prayer and with the press. With prayer to obtain the grace that the press may do good and that he who performs it may have light and grace to perform it with holiness and to obtain a large diffusion, and many fruits of goodness. I am ignorant that I do not know anything and less than nothing, I am more incapable than any other, I was chosen to do this great deed” (SUOR SCOLASTICA, Quaderno 1928, unplubished).
307 Cf. Manuscript notebook of Sr. Giuseppina Ambrosio, Instructions I-XX + 1 Monthly retreat on the Religious State (unpublished, currently kept at the Centro di Spiritualità Paolina).
308 Particularly interesting is Instruction XVIII, on Jesus Master Way, Truth and Life. Here is a broad quote: “A great grace that we must ask the Divine Master is this: That we may always be faithful to our vocation, seeing to it that our press is always pastoral, that is, that it be written with pastoral, parochial spirit, with the truths that save. You shall truly love the Divine Master when you shall give pastoral press, not luxurious but all simple and clear, because Jesus said, 'I am the Way, the Truth and the Life' and we must let this press reach all and save souls, to let the light of the Gospel reach all families. This is the first homage that I suggest you make to Jesus Master... Jesus Master Way, Truth and Life is our path; for as long as we remain in it, we shall be well, we shall be blessed, our apostolate shall be blessed. Keep yourself then on this road, do not escape from it, do not look for unoccupied roads, tell Jesus Master Way Truth and Life, have mercy on us, be our path, enlighten us, guide us to Yourself, please keep us close to You. - Our respects to Jesus Master - In the second place, aside from the Gospel, there is the study of the Catechism. Truth - The first part of Catechism is the Creed, dogma, and you shall honor Jesus Truth. Way - The second part, that is, the precepts, the commandments and the virtues, that is, morals - it brings honor to Jesus Way. Life - The third part includes the sacraments, the Mass, prayers, or worship in honor of Jesus Life. 'I am the true Life'.” In the conclusion of the following Instruction, Fr. Alberione affirms: “The religious life is the Way, the Truth and the Life lived in the most perfect manner. It is a must that during the time of novitiate, you must show you are ascending to the religious life, to the vows, and that you already practice them with eagerness and fervor” (G. AMBROSIO, Quaderno 1929, unpublished).
309 Among the many initiatives, it's good to remember the start of the excavations for the building of the church of Jesus Master in Borgo Piave, Alba, on 14 March 1927.
310 “Two news items... In Capital Letters.. . Are those that the Signor Teologo communicated to the Pauline Family on the evening of that assault that we mentioned elsewhere, that is, at the eve of his feast. - But why news in capital letters? - Because all the others, in comparison, are in small letters. Here are the two news items: 1
st The conclusion of the contract for the building of the Paper Mill; 2
nd The acquisition of a piece of land for the new quarters of the House of Rome. And without any further addition, it is easy to understand that for the Casa the news means two events of maximum importance. Friends can easily imagine how these two news items were received by the boys” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year X, no. 8, 20 August 1927, p. 12).
311 Ibid., year X, no. 3, 20 March 1927, pp. I-XVI.
312 Ibid., year X, no. 9, 20 September 1927, pp. 8-9.
313 “Duly approved by the Royal Procurator General of Turin, a new publication has been added to the numerous family of confreres who see the light under the aegis of St. Paul. “La Famiglia Cristiana” is a great weekly publication of 12 pages, a real treasure for Christian families, and it is especially destined to those dioceses that are without a Catholic weekly magazine or hardly manage to keep it alive. We wish the new preacher of the Gospel of Christ a vast diffusion and an abundant harvest of good” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year X, no. 9, 20 September 1927, p. 14). This periodical stopped publication after some months. “La Famiglia Cristiana” is reborn in 1931.
314 “Master was the title with which Jesus Christ preferred to be called. Satan, with the bad press, dethroned Jesus Christ from the minds and through them from the hearts, the desires and in works. The feast of the Divine Master wants to place Jesus Christ through the Gospel back in throne and through them in man and in life; to establish the Kingdom of Jesus Christ in the minds by winning them over through the powerful word of the Gospel; the other presses have less power on man” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year IX, no. 1, 20 January 1926, p. 11). The article moves on revealing nine reasons for the promotion of the feast.
315 Cf. Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VIII, no. 10, 20 September 1925, pp. 12-13.
316 Ibid. , year IX, no. 11, 20 November 1926, pp. 8-9.
317 The Congress opened on 30 June “with the Pope's blessing, with the participation of some twenty Cardinals, Archbishops and Bishops and with the most genuine approval of the clergy and of the Catholic laity of the Piedmontese dioceses... Amid a volley of applause, the Pope's telegram was read: 'The Holy Father, pleased with the opportune activity Pious Society of St. Paul Press Apostolate sends heartfelt sought blessings to the associates and participants of the Gospel Congress. Cardinal Gasparri'.” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year X, no. 7, 20 July 1927, pp. 2-5).
318 Ibid. , pp. 6-7.
319 “The month of June closes with the feast of St. Paul: those who have consecrated the month of January to the Sacred Heart, may give the whole of June to St. Paul: those who honor the Heart of Jesus in June, let them be introduced by St. Paul to the love of the Sacred Heart. St. Paul is the prisoner of Jesus; he is the Apostle of love of Jesus Christ; he is consumed by charity for Jesus Christ: he is the life of Jesus Christ. The devotion to St. Paul is a sign of predilection of God: the devotion to St. Paul lists us in the book of life. Saints are that great before God, and that strong help for us the more they approach and copy the Divine Master way, truth and life. Way as model; truth with teachings; life with the grace that they communicate to us by praying for us. St. Paul is way: the Holy Spirit makes him write three times these words: 'be imitators of me as I imitate Jesus Christ.' St. Paul is truth: he is the Teacher and the doctor, he so possesses and communicates the Gospel which he calls 'my Gospel' and 'he generates in the Gospel.' St. Paul is life: because his life is identified with that of Jesus Christ: 'I live now not I, it is Jesus Christ who lives in me'.” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VIII, no. 7, 15 June 1925, p. 1).
320 Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year X, no. 8, 20 August 1927, p. 1.
321 “The Casa di S. Paolo has its special protectors who inspire the institution and who, with ceaseless assistance, make it prosper; and towards them it nourishes and practices particular devotions each day, and more solemnly and together at the start of every month. The first week of the month has hence taken the name of Week of Devotions that always comprises an event of certain regularity... And here is a brief reference to the various devotions. The Casa wants to be characterized: with the spirit and life of St. Paul: it has taken its name from him, Society of St. Paul, the first house, the Chapel; and so shall also be the name of the Church under construction. Thus is dedicated to St. Paul the first Monday of the month. In the second place, the press apostolate is distinguished, but never separated from the apostolate of prayer: resolve is made to save souls and does not leave them until they enter heaven. In purgatory, there are those who suffer due to bad press, and the Casa cannot but be involved with them. Hence the first Tuesday is consecrated to the Souls in Purgatory. The press apostolate needs material means, and there is no better Provider of these than he who was chosen to provide for the Holy Family, St. Joseph. The press apostolate is a universal apostolate, and it is good that it should rely on the Protector of the Universal Church. The evil press is that which sows unbelief, hatred for the Church that has given value to religious practices, the sacraments... etc., and is the cause that so many persons approach death unprepared and indisposed. It is the task of the apostles of the good press to make reparation for these ills by letting the mediation of the Protector of the dying stand in between. The students are all enrolled in the Sacred Crusade for the dying, and on the first Wednesday of the month, they honor and pray especially to St. Joseph for that purpose. The first Thursday is dedicated to the Guardian Angel. Every book, every good Periodical is an Angel that leaves the printing press as an inspirer of good sentiments, a proponent of strong proposals, sower of chosen seeds that bring eternal fruits. Many of the Bulletins, in fact, are named 'Angel' and bear as symbol an Angel. And truly they accomplish that work of prolonged, silent, sweetly insinuating presence, without pretensions as the good guardian angel. He who writes, too, has nothing but an anonymous and imperceptible communication with the person who reads while the angels of whom he writes and of whom he reads can, with extreme ease, be in communication and to prepare the proper soil on one hand and an appropriate seedling on another. The press apostolate is nothing but the continuation of the Evangelization started by the Divine Master: it is the execution of the command: 'Go to all the earth, preach the Gospel to every creature... ' The Divine Master is the inspirer, and he who gives growth, who gives life to the seed and makes it sprout; he who sustains and guides the gospel sower. To him the first Friday is consecrated with the reparatory Communion, the Communion of the nine Fridays, and the explanation of the intention of the apostolate of prayer. Saturday is dedicated to Mary. The Apostles were entrusted to this Mother and they owe her the fruitfulness of their apostolate. Mary is Queen of the Apostles, and also is the Queen of the Good Press inasmuch as all the sacred writers have consecrated to her the most beautiful pages! The sweetest expressions, like literature, also the profane, and the related arts created for her the most beautiful masterworks. Perfect devotion is explained according to blessed Grignion de Montfort” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year X, no. 8, 20 August 1927, pp. 10-11).
322 “The stained glass windows of the Church of St. Paul - Alba. The windows must be proportioned by style, richness, piety, with the rest of the Church. And thus a special study was done with particular attention and thus, stained glass windows, frames, figures are turning up very beautifully. There are 22 windows above, of which: 1. Four in the form of shell with glass of fourteen square meters. They shall have stained glasses illustrating: the letter of St. Paul to the Romans, the conversion of St. Paul, the martyrdom of St. Paul, the glory of St. Paul. 2. Four in oval helixes, of about eight square meters; they open in the pier of the central vault. They shall have illustrated glasses representing the evangelists with their respective symbols, that is: St. Matthew with the Angel; St. Mark with the lion; St. Luke with the ox; St. John with the eagle. 3. Twelve windows of baroque rectangular form, opened above the transepts of the Church, of two dimensions, that is, a part is 6 square meters and another is 4 square meters. They shall have stained glass, too, and the twelve apostles shall find place there. 4. Two other windows, oval, shell form, of eight square meters open above the entrance arm of the Church. The illustrated stained glasses represent the two disciples of St. Paul: St. Titus and Timothy. St. Timothy at the act of being ordained Priest by St. Paul; St. Titus at the moment he expires in sprit, 'plenus dierum ac meritorum'. In this manner the young men who shall be apostles of the Gospel through the Press shall have one day, continually before their eyes, the examples of the Apostle par excellence, St. Paul; and of the twelve other Apostles, chosen by the Lord, and of the Evangelists who left us this inexhaustible treasure of the Gospel. Of St. Paul we are reminded of conversion of the heart; of the masterpiece of his writings, the epistle to the Romans; his labors for the Gospel, specifically his martyrdom; his crown of justice, that is, the eternal glory among those who followed him, St. Luke, St. Titus, St. Timothy, St. Thecla, etc., etc. And thus the windows shall be as if a continuing story, preaching and encouragement to the Clerics to follow, after the example of their heavenly protector, the way in which God calls them. And so that the life of the apostolate may always be considered in its principle of grace and of mission given by the Church, behold St. Timothy who receives the sacred ordination from St. Paul. And so that it may be considered in its true end, behold St. Titus who leaves the earth surrounded by the disciples and already goes to the eternal reward of heaven. The most illustrious examples of virtue and zeal were left by the apostles, directly chosen by Our Lord Jesus Christ and given authority, powers, special gifts by him. Hence, their presence shall be a continuing lesson. May the Evangelists obtain for us then the grace of better understanding, and living, and publishing the Gospel to every creature. Work becomes worthy for as long as humanly speaking it could be said so. The style and the right attunement with the church, the colors, are distributed with richness and proportion; the figures are alive, speaking; the position of each one has its own meaning” (Unione Cooperatori Apostolato Stampa, year XI, no. 8, 31 August 1928, p. II).
323 Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year VIII, no. 8, 20 July 1925, pp. 17-18.
324 Ibid. , year IX, no. 6, 15 June 1926, pp. 2-3.
325 Ibid. , year X, no. 6, 15 June 1927, pp. 1-3.
326 Alongside a narration of the celebrations of the blessing of the Church of St. Paul, a short article informs on the Spiritual Exercises for the young and, among other things, it says: “The Spiritual Exercises lead not only to a good Confession, but more easily, to a good choice of state in life, and in a sincere and lasting conversion to God through Christian life. At 'St. Paul' this year, various courses of Spiritual Exercises for the youth outsiders were held: aside from the usual persons inside. Three courses for the daughters, wherein 210 young persons became fervent in Christian and pious life; and a course for young men, for which in a most edifying manner 60 young men waited. Many young men insisted that they too may have such a fortune; many daughters are waiting that their turn may also come; now men and women have also asked. It is hoped that everyone will be satisfied. From here, however, everyone will see what an advantage it would be if there might be something more suitable and permanent” (Unione Cooperatori Apostolato Stampa, year XI, no. 11, November 1928, p. 2). Sensitive to the pastoral of the Spiritual Exercises, at the start of 1930, Fr. Alberione makes the first steps for the construction of a House for Spiritual Exercises. Cf. A. F. DA SILVA, Cristo Via, Verità e Vita centro della vita, dell'opera e del pensiero di don G. Alberione, in AA.VV., L'eredità cristocentrica di don Alberione, op. cit., pp. 282-283.
One can notice that this initiative of Fr. Alberione responded to what the encyclical Mens nostra of Pius XI augured regarding “the importance and usefulness of promoting the Spiritual Exercises.” In order to see the attunement of the DF with this encyclical it is perhaps enough to quote the following passage: “In the difficult times wherein we live, wherein the true sense of Christ, the supernatural spirit, essence of our holy religion, suffers many obstacles and impediments, with the spread of naturalism that tends to make the ideals of the faith languish and to weaken the ardor of Christian charity, it is salutary as ever to take away man from that 'fascination of vanity' that 'obscures what is good' (Wis 4:12) and bring him to that blessed solitude, where, in a heavenly teaching, the soul learns the true value of human existence placed precisely in God's service, the salutary horror for sin, the holy fear of God, the vanity of earthly things in the contemplation of Him who is 'way and truth and life' (Jn 14:6), learns to take off the 'old man' (Eph 4:22) and to deny himself in the exercise of humility, of obedience, of mortification in order that he may put on Christ, till he reaches that 'perfect man' and to that 'measure of the fullness of age of Christ' (Eph 4:13) of which the apostle speaks, even until he can say with him 'I live now not I but Christ lives in me' (Gal 2:20): sublime ascensions and divine transformation that the soul accomplishes under the action of grace invoked in the most frequent and fervent prayer, drawn in the most devote participation to the most holy Mysteries” (La Civiltà Cattolica, year 81 , vol. I, quad. 1909, 28 December 1929, pp. 10-11).
327 Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year X, no. 1, 20 January 1927, pp. 4-6.
328 Regole, Pia Società San Paolo, 1927, Prima Parte, La Pia Società S. Paolo, art. III. In the month of April 1927, the bulletin of the UCBS dedicates various pages to the Parish Sections. Before presenting the Statute, Fr. Alberione addresses the Cooperators: “The Pious Society of St. Paul works in the Press Apostolate that is, it directs its activity to the spread of the truth and Christian life through leaflets, periodicals, books, libraries, bulletins, etc., etc. It is dedicated to the spread, popularization, defense of the word of God through the Press: as the Priests with preaching. Hence, it tends to form priest-writers and religious workers; to write, to print, to diffuse; to form teachers-writers and women religious workers; to spread the persuasion that we need to be attached to Jesus Master who manifests to us in tradition and in preaching just as in the Scripture and in the Press-Apostolate. Currently, the Pious Society of St. Paul has almost five hundred young men, a number that is increasing every year. It is a group that educates with two hundred Daughters who are dedicated to the Press-Apostolate. In parishes, however, it tends to form the Sections of Cooperators: these take the place of the Press Apostolate and makes the works of the Society of St. Paul live, with its spirit and with its direction. Thus they become most effective help to the most reverend Parish Priests and to souls; while with their prayers, work, and offerings they support the initiatives of the Center... The Press Apostolate is today the ordinary means of instruction for the Parish Priest as to St. Paul his letters, as the Sacred Scriptures stand beside preaching” (Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year X, no. 4, 20 April 1927, p. 5).
329 For example, the publication of the “Bibbia per delle Famiglie” is announced: The Bible turned into breviary of the people, a book of holy devotion addressed to families and to schools, so that it may be an inexhaustible source of instruction, of education and of holy works for parents and children, for teachers and students. “Inasmuch as it is for the people, the translation is of the Vulgate, according to the desires of the Church; and the notes are either of the Fathers or of the Doctors, or of already approved ecclesiastical writers. Important: the “Bibbia delle Famiglie” shall also be available in illustrated weekly installments” (Unione Cooperatori Apostolato Stampa, year XI, no. 2, 15 February 1928, p. 27).
330 For example: “God wants the Press-Apostolate” (Unione Cooperatori Apostolato Stampa, year XI, no. 6, 30 June 1928, pp. 8-9); “God himself directly designates the purpose of the Press-Apostolate, or its teaching mission” (Unione Cooperatori Apostolato Stampa, year XI, no. 7, 31 July 1928, pp. 7-9).
331 Cf. Unione Cooperatori Buona Stampa, year X, no. 2, 20 February 1927, pp. 4-5.
332 T. GIACCARDO, Regina degli Apostoli, le ragioni del titolo, i benefici del titolo, il culto del titolo, Pia Società S. Paolo, Roma, Alba, Torino, 1928. In a letter to Giaccardo, published as a presentation of the book, Fr. Alberione writes: “The doctrine, the thoughts, the sentiments and the respects that are exposed herein are not new things for us: together, we have meditated on them, studied and practiced them. But to see them today proposed in an orderly manner, fixed on pages addressed also for others is something useful, meritorious and certainly pleasing to Mary” (G. Alberione, Alba, 19 March 1928).
333 Cf. Unione Cooperatori Apostolato Stampa, year XII, no. 4, 16 April 1929, pp. 6-7.
334 Giaccardo dedicates a chapter to “Mary Queen of the Press,” composed of an introduction and three points: the kingdom of the press, the kingdom of Mary in the press and the apostolate of the press under the governance of Mary. At the end of the chapter, an example follows wherein the vocation of Fr. Alberione, that of Giaccardo himself and the development of the Casa are told. It seems proper to quote some of the passages of the article here: “...we, sons of St. Paul, little ministers of the apostolate of the press, we who proceed from the will of the Holy Father, with whom by religious bond we are bound for the defense and the spread of the Church with the means of the Press. The apostolate of the press takes the features of books, of periodicals, it is the living word of God, living and savior, just as the preaching, that comes in articulated sound, is the living word of the living and saving God. The apostolate of the press is the defense, the explanation, the spread, the application and the popularization of the Gospel... I. THE KINGDOM OF THE PRESS. In the power of this kingdom shines the regal crown of Mary... Every new area of human activity and of Christian zeal, destined to the expansion of the heavenly Father's kingdom, is by the gift of God, subject to the reign of the Most Holy Virgin and recognizes Mary Most Holy as its Queen. The phenomenon of the press today is perhaps the principal manifestation in the field of human activity: it is one of the most principal means of zeal. The most marvelous progresses, the most amazing discoveries, of these last years have been made in the field of the press and at the service of the press. The greater part of the intellectual activity of men is dedicated to the press. The newspaper is the hunger of today, the thirst of today, the breath of today: the newspaper stirs ideas, leads the will, forms consciences, dominates public opinion. The newspaper, the press is called with a most expressive term, the King of the times. And of this most important kingdom, of this most noble and most effective work of zeal, Mary is and must be the Queen; Mary cares for the press, and the press and the men of the press recognize it” (T. GIACCARDO, Regina degli Apostoli, op. cit., pp. 197-199).
335 Cf. the dossier “1928. I primi Fratelli Discepoli di Gesù Divin Maestro”, by Bro Maggiorino S. Caldellara, submitted by the author to the Center of Pauline Spirituality.
336 This novelty is not yet shown in the December issue of the UCAS, in a news item on Mr. Giovanni Marengo, assistant to the workers. “He is a good Pauline who now is out of the Casa in order to fulfill his duty towards the motherland. He was with us for ten days and he came purposely for the spiritual exercises. We found him well and we gladly see him again: his student workers, of whom he took good care and with whom he shared the same sentiments, celebrated much for him. A few months more, and then he shall always be with us” (Unione Cooperatori Apostolato Stampa, year XI, no. 12, December 1928, p. 5). Instead, in the May 1929 issue, it is affirmed: “Also the Disciples, in their courtyard, raised a small pillar on which they placed a beautiful statute of the Immaculate Mary” (Unione Cooperatori Apostolato Stampa, year XII, no. 5, 16 May 1929, p. 6).
337 G. ALBERIONE, Alba 29/05/1929 (cf. Corrispondenza Don Alberione - T. Giaccardo, unpublished, kept at the Archivio Storico Generale della Famiglia Paolina, in the General House SSP).
338 Unione Cooperatori Apostolato Stampa, year XII, no. 7, 16 July 1929, p. 2.
339 PIO XI, Lettera enciclica della riparazione che tutti debbono al Cuore Sacratissimo di Gesù, cf. La Civiltà Cattolica, year 79, vol. II, quad. 1871, 23 May 1928, pp. 385ff.
340 Cf. Quaderno no. 6, unpublished, Friday, 18 May 1928, p. 177.
341 F. CHIESA, Riparazione!, Comment on the encyclical letter “Miserentissimus Redemptor” in a month of Instructions with examples, L.I.C.E., Lega Italiana Cattolica Editrice, Torino, 1930. Let it be noted that the Preface of the author bears the date, “Alba, Feast of the Epiphany, 1929”.
342 “Many are the religious institutes of the Church: old and recent, all of them venerable and rich with fruits for souls. In a very special manner, an institute that is dedicated to the divine and necessary Press-Apostolate is convenient. The Press-Apostolate is in its substance ancient as the Bible; today, however, it has assumed a new form, an effectiveness and a new need, considering the new social conditions today and the new inventions. For such an apostolate two institutes have been approved as two religious congregations, according to the norms of sacred canons. They are distinct in their Direction and Administration, akin to each other for the commonness of end, for the commonness of many means, for the commonness of spirit. They are: THE PIA SOCIETÀ S. PAOLO (male branch), THE PIA SOCIETÀ DELLE FIGLIE DI SAN PAOLO (female branch). - End. Both are resolved to preach with the Press, in the manner that preaching is done with words the Christian truths; in view of sanctifying its own Members; attracting souls to the school of the Divine Master in order to lead them to Heaven. Means. Common life, the religious vows, practices of piety, daily Apostolate, the practice of virtues, etc., are the means for the members' own sanctification. For the spread of Christian doctrine, the Members shall attend to: a) writing periodicals, pamphlets, books, broadsheets, with the spirit of communicating, commenting, spreading the Holy Gospels and its teachings; b) to print, that is accomplish the typographical work of typesetting, printing, gathering and binding, etc; c) to spread and diffuse with various book initiatives, parish bulletins, biblical works, weeklies, etc. SPIRIT. It is the command of the Divine Master that his teaching be taught to every creature according to how it is watched over and taught by the Catholic Church, infallible Teacher of the truth. Preaching has to be done in simplicity and as the entire manifestation of Jesus Master Way, Truth, and Life according to the example and under the protection of the Apostle Paul, vessel of election and doctor of the Gentiles. The Lord, the Sacred Writers, the Apostles, the Holy Fathers, the Doctors, the Church, are the teachers, the models of this Apostolate exercised singularly because this is eternal life, that those who know You, (Father), know Him whom you have sent” (Unione Cooperatori Apostolato Stampa, year XII, no. 8, 16 August 1929, p. 1).
343 Among the news items of the Casa of Alba, is about the return of Sig. Giovanni from military service and of his reception of the religious habit among the Reparator-Disciples: “During these days our young Signor Giovanni has come back from military service. After a week of Spiritual Exercises, he received the Religious Habit of the Family “Reparator-Disciples”. While we thank the Lord for keeping him good also amidst all the dangers of military life, let us extend to him the wish of an ever more fruitful apostolate” (Unione Cooperatori Apostolato Stampa, year XII, no. 9, 16 September 1929, p. 12).
344 Unione Cooperatori Apostolato Stampa, year XII, no. 9, 16 September 1929, p. 5. Cf. This Introduction, no. 166.
345 “In the Pious Society of St. Paul, the Disciples of the Divine Master are the lay religious who dedicate themselves to the Apostolate of the Press. Their scope is dual: 1) To make reparation for the numerous sins caused by bad press, through a pious life, with the exercise of Christian virtues, with the sanctification of self. 2) The theoretical-practical study of printing work of typesetting, of printing, of binding, of the paper, of inks, of diffusion, etc. They follow Jesus Master by practicing the two most important devotions: devote assistance to the Holy Mass (two Holy Masses every day) and the exercise of the Way of the Cross twice a week (Tuesday and Friday) aside from the daily Visit to the Most Blessed Sacrament. They spend all their energies, always cheerful and happy, by being employed in the most varied kinds of work: they must possess a complete set of theoretical and practical knowledge of everything that concerns printing work; not only that, but in the Casa where it is not enough just to typeset or print but also to prepare the ink for printing, metal cast the characters for typesetting, produce paper, etc. Hence, it's beautiful to see them move from the typesetting department to the printing hall, from the typesetter to the ink-maker, from the mechanical department to paper making, to the practice of diffusing printed books. And they perform all these variegated work with much care and dedication; motivated by the only thought of gaining for themselves merits, and many merits for Heaven; to save many, very many souls. The Disciples of the Divine Master are increasing and may no one of those called ever leave but that all may generously correspond. We recommend to all our dearest Cooperators and in a special manner to the Most Reverend Parish Priests the work for vocations to the Press-Apostolate among the Disciples of the Divine Master. Often in the Catholic Male Youth Circles are known young men and even older ones who are much inclined to piety; it would be an act of charity to lead them to the religious life where their merits would be multiplied! Innocent small ones, spotless ones are met; it would be a great act of charity to suggest to them a religious house where they could be saved from many dangers and where they would develop the divine seed of vocation. At times young men are met who are alone or somehow an excess in the family: if they possessed too that foundation of piety and docility wherein a special hope of religious vocation could be cultivated, there is an occasion for a good deed that God presents to us” (Unione Cooperatori Apostolato Stampa, year XII, no. 10, 16 October 1929, pp. 2-3).
346 F. CHIESA, Introduzione all'Ascetica, Pia Società San Paolo, Alba-Roma, 1929.
347 F. CHIESA, Prefazione, in Introduzione all'Ascetica, op. cit., p. VII.
348 F. CHIESA, Introduzione all'Ascetica, op. cit., p. 166.
349 G. ALBERIONE, Alba 04/11/1928 (cf. Corrispondenza Don Alberione - T. Giaccardo, unpublished, conserved at the Archivio Storico Generale della Famiglia Paolina, in the SSP General House).
350 G. ALBERIONE, Alba 10/01/1929 (cf. Corrispondenza Don Alberione - T. Giaccardo, unpublished, conserved at the Archivio Storico Generale della Famiglia Paolina, in the SSP General House).
351 G. ALBERIONE, Alba 11/09/1929 (cf. Corrispondenza Don Alberione - T. Giaccardo, unpublished, conserved at the Archivio Storico Generale della Famiglia Paolina, in the SSP General House).
352 G. ALBERIONE, [1929?] (cf. Corrispondenza Don Alberione - T. Giaccardo, unpublished, conserved at the Archivio Storico Generale della Famiglia Paolina, in the SSP General House).
353 Cf. A. F. DA SILVA, Il cammino degli Esercizi Spirituali nel pensiero di Don Giacomo Alberione, op. cit., pp. 72ff; A. F. DA SILVA, Cristo Via, Verità e Vita centro della vita, dell'opera e del pensiero di don G. Alberione, in AA.VV., L'eredità cristocentrica di don Alberione, op. cit., pp. 263ff.; A. F. DA SILVA, Gv 14,6: eredità carismatica per la Famiglia Paolina, in “Spezzate il pane della Parola”, Dossier for the Pauline Bible Year 1991-1992, Rome, SSP General House, January 1991, Pro manuscripto, pp. 52ff.
354 F. CHIESA, Per l'unità nella formazione del Clero, Pia Società San Paolo, Alba-Roma, 1932.
355 F. CHIESA, Per l'unità nella formazione del Clero, op. cit., pp. 130-131.
356 Consider the consonance of the mind of Alberione with the following passage from F. Chiesa: “Now what is said of the Priest? Is he not an other Christ? Sacerdos alter Christus. And if it is so, should not the training for the Priesthood be done by the Cleric in the Seminary be a continuing study of copying in himself the examples of Christ, donec formetur Christus in vobis? (Gal 4:19). It is true that the purpose of the Priesthood is to continue the mission of Christ in the midst of mankind. Sicut misit me Pater, et ego mitto vos (Jn 20:21). Hence, the Priest himself can exercise the mission, inasmuch as he is united with Christ, his mandate-giver and model. Like the metal wire that is capable of bringing to us the power that gives life to a motor, inasmuch as it is attached to the source of electric energy; - and as, according to the beautiful simile of Our Lord Jesus Christ himself, a branch can bear fruit inasmuch as it is attached to the vine, - so is the Priest. This cannot bring to souls Christ's redemption if not inasmuch as he is united with Christ, made one with Him: Sine me, nihil potestis facere (Jn 15:5). Now which Cleric prepares himself more effectively to be an other Christ and hence bear more abundant fruits in the mystical vineyard of Christ? Certainly, it is he who with greater diligence attends to unifying in himself the elements of Jesus' mission, that are way, truth, and life; or that which is done, in imitation to Jesus, way of the faithful through examples; truth with learning of the true doctrine of Jesus in order to teach it in due time; and life, through frequent reception of the Sacraments in order to be able to administer them to the faithful. Mind and heart, teaching and life, study and virtues, theology and conduct, theory and practice, everything must be only one thing in him: Cleric, so it is said, who is entirely a single unit, without contradictions and reservations” (F. CHIESA, Per l'unità nella formazione del Clero, op. cit., pp. 52-53).
357 For example, the photographs of the Disciples working in the paper mill are published (cf. Unione Cooperatori Apostolato Stampa, year XIII, 17 July 1930, p. 5). In August 1931, the new Italian translation of the Bible is announced (cf. Unione Cooperatori Apostolato Stampa, year XIV, no. 8, 17 August 1931, p. 14). In its February 1932 issue of UCAS, Fr. Alberione dedicates a page to the solemn announcement of the project of publishing, each in four volumes, different editions of the Bible: Latin-Italian Bible: Latin-French; Latin-English; Latin-Spanish (cf. Unione Cooperatori Apostolato Stampa, year XV, no. 2, February 1932, p. 10).
358 The December 1929 issue of the UCAS publishes in a calendar for the year 1930, 12 photographs presenting the various groups of the Casa, in Alba (cf. Unione Cooperatori Apostolato Stampa, year XII, no. 12, 17 December 1929, pp. 4-15). The issue of July 1930 publishes the photographs of the solemn procession of the Corpus Domini (cf. Unione Cooperatori Apostolato Stampa, year XIII, no. 14, 17 July 1930, pp. 10-11).
359 Aside from the foundations already cited, here is a list of the new houses opened. In 1929: Brescia (FSP: 8 August), Udine (FSP: 17 September), Genova (FSP: 25 November), Palermo (FSP: 28 November). In 1930: Novara (FSP: 10 May), Treviso (FSP: 27 June), Ancona (FSP: 10 July), Bologna (FSP: 20 July), Sanfré (SSP: 15 September), Napoli-Capodimonte (FSP: 8 October). In 1931 the foundations in Italy were about ten.
360 In 1931, the departures of some Paulines for Brazil, Argentina and United States took place as well as of the Daughters of St. Paul and the Pious Disciples for Brazil and Argentina.
361 In the February issue of UCAS, among the news from the Mother House in Alba, it is affirmed: “The month of January - It is dedicated by the Casa to Jesus Master and the Primo Maestro at the hour of adoration done on day 3 told us that in the month of January we ought to obtain the grace of growing, of going forward and of progressing, donec formetur Christus in vobis. The month is consecrated for the youth of Jesus in order to obtain the grace of imitating him in his private life. The Primo Maestro explained to us as follows: to grow for us means to be more saintly, to be wiser, to acquire greater spirit of piety and not only to increase days in life. We are the disciples and as such we must imitate the master who told us, quemadmodum ego feci ita et vos faciatis” (Unione Cooperatori Apostolato Stampa, year XV, no. 2, February 1932, p. 3).